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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Theileriasis

  • Four of the cattle were treated daily with 1 international unit/kg body weight (i.u./kg bwt) of nHuIFN-alpha (Cantell) from day -2 to day 8 p.i. None of the 4 calves given IFN developed clinical theileriosis, but 3 of the 4 control calves died of theileriosis while the fourth had a mild infection [1].
  • Two field trials were carried out in successive years at the Ngong Veterinary Farm, Kenya, in which young cattle, previously unexposed to tick-borne diseases, were introduced into an area with endemic East Coast fever while protected by a series of injections of a long-acting oxytetracycline [2].
  • Halofuginone was given by mouth at 1.2 mg/kg and cured five cattle of early clinical theileriosis, but significant recrudescences of infection occurred [3].

High impact information on Theileriasis

  • Finally, we showed that polyclonal rat Abs against recombinant PIM neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro, suggesting that the PIM Ag should be evaluated for its capacity to immunize cattle against East Coast Fever [4].
  • East Coast fever, which is caused by Theileria parva infection in cattle, is of major economic importance in eastern and central Africa. Until recently, the only available method of immunization against East Coast fever was the infection with live sporozoites and simultaneous treatment with a long-acting oxytetracycline [5].
  • The theilerioses can be separated on the basis of their principal pathogenic features, into a lymphoproliferative group caused by Theileria parva and T. annulata in cattle, and T. hirci in goats and sheep, and a haemoproliferative group caused by T. sergenti and T. mutans both in cattle [6].
  • Given the caveat of the small number of cattle analyzed, insect cell-derived p67 does not appear to be superior to NS1-p67 as an immunogen, and the latter remains the molecule of choice for the development of vaccines against East Coast fever [7].
  • Recombinant p67 is, therefore, a candidate antigen for development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for East Coast fever in cattle [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Theileriasis


Biological context of Theileriasis


Anatomical context of Theileriasis

  • T. annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in cattle, can also infect ovine and caprine leukocytes in vitro [17].
  • It is suggested that treatment of dairy cattle chronically infected with T. annulata using buparvaquone may have the dual beneficial effect of reducing the pathogenic effects of theileriosis, thereby permitting restoration of an impaired immune system, thus increasing resistance to other infections [18].
  • Parvaquone was tested in cattle infected with Theileria annulata when they were presented at clinics in the vicinity of Baghdad. Out of over 200 cases presented with suspected theileriosis between July 1984 and July 1985, the drug was used in 45 cases where theileriosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of blood and lymph node biopsy smears [19].

Gene context of Theileriasis


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Theileriasis


  1. Low-dose oral administration of human interferon alpha can control the development of Theileria parva infection in cattle. Young, A.S., Maritim, A.C., Kariuki, D.P., Stagg, D.A., Wafula, J.M., Mutugi, J.J., Cummins, J.M., Richards, A.B., Burns, C. Parasitology (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Long-acting oxytetracycline prophylaxis to protect susceptible cattle introduced into an area of Kenya with endemic East Coast fever. Chumo, R.S., Irvin, A.D., Morzaria, S.P., Katende, J., Purnell, R.E. Vet. Rec. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of the antitheilerial effect of Wellcome 993C and halofuginone. Morgan, D.W., McHardy, N. Res. Vet. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the gene encoding the polymorphic immunodominant molecule, a neutralizing antigen of Theileria parva. Toye, P.G., Metzelaar, M.J., Wijngaard, P.L., Nene, V., Iams, K., Roose, J., Nyanjui, J.K., Gobright, E., Musoke, A.J., Clevers, H.C. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A Sporozoite-based vaccine for Theileria parva. Musoke, A., Nene, V., Morzaria, S.P. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunity in theileriosis. Irvin, A.D. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of an insect cell-derived Theileria parva sporozoite vaccine antigen and immunogenicity in cattle. Nene, V., Inumaru, S., McKeever, D., Morzaria, S., Shaw, M., Musoke, A. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterisation of the gene encoding a candidate vaccine antigen of Theileria parva sporozoites. Nene, V., Iams, K.P., Gobright, E., Musoke, A.J. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunization of cattle using varying infective doses of Theileria parva lawrencei sporozoites derived from an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and treatment with buparvaquone. Mutugi, J.J., Young, A.S., Maritim, A.C., Linyonyi, A., Mbogo, S.K., Leitch, B.L. Parasitology (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of theileriosis with parvaquone in Zambia. Musisi, F.L., Morgan, D.W., Schels, H.F. Vet. Rec. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Chemotherapy of bovine theileriosis with Halofuginone. Short communication. Schein, E., Voigt, W.P. Acta Trop. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemotherapy of field cases of East Coast fever using halofuginone lactate. Mbwambo, H.A., Mkonyi, P.A., Sondi, J., Lekaki, K.A. Acta Trop. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunisation against East Coast fever by the infection and treatment method: evaluation of the use of ice baths for field delivery and appraisal of an acid formulation of long-acting tetracycline. Marcotty, T., Billiouw, M., Chaka, G., Berkvens, D., Losson, B., Brandt, J. Vet. Parasitol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical trial of halofuginone lactate for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Chema, S., Chumo, R.S., Dolan, T.T., Gathuma, J.M., Irvin, A.D., James, A.D., Young, A.S. Vet. Rec. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunization against diseases caused by Theileria parva: a review. Uilenberg, G. Trop. Med. Int. Health (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of experimentally induced theileriosis (Theileria annulata) on the pharmacokinetics of a long-acting formulation of oxytetracycline (OTC-LA) in calves. Kumar, R., Malik, J.K. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Proliferation and cytokine profile of T. annulata-infected ovine, caprine, and bovine lymphoblastoid cells. Schnittger, L., Hollmann, C., Diemer, U., Boguslawski, K., Ahmed, J.S. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of treatment of chronic theileriosis with buparvaquone on milk yields. Michael, S.A., el Refaii, A.H., McHardy, N., Rae, D.G. Tropical animal health and production. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Efficacy of parvaquone in the treatment of naturally occurring theileriosis in cattle in Iraq. Hawa, N., Rae, D.G., Younis, S., Mahadi, W., Ibrahim, R., al-Wahab, W. Tropical animal health and production. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Assignment of the casein kinase II gene family to cattle chromosomes. Gao, Q., Li, L., Womack, J.E. Anim. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunization against East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection of cattle) by infection and treatment: chemoprophylaxis with N-pyrrolidinomethyl tetracycline. Brown, C.G., Radley, D.E., Cunningham, M.P., Kirimi, I.M., Morzaria, S.P., Musoke, A.J. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie. (1977) [Pubmed]
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