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Chemical Compound Review

NORLEUCINE     2-aminohexanoic acid

Synonyms: DL-Norleucine, H-DL-Nle-OH, Norleucine, L-, ARONIS27065, ACMC-1CUY1, ...
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Disease relevance of NORLEUCINE


Psychiatry related information on NORLEUCINE


High impact information on NORLEUCINE

  • Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were designed and screened for their ability to suppress the expression of caprine and bovine prion protein (PrP) [8].
  • We have solved the x-ray structures of HP35 and its fastest folding mutant [K24 norleucine (nL)] to atomic resolution and compared their experimentally measured folding kinetics by using laser temperature jump [9].
  • We have tested the hypothesis that natural selection has favored diversification of these genes by examining patterns of nucleotide substitution in a sample of 28 closely related bovine, caprine, and ovine family members that are expressed only in trophoblast binucleate cells [10].
  • Human hypothalamic GRF shows major homologies (93%, 89%, and 86%, respectively) when its primary structure is compared to that of the hypothalamic GRF from the porcine, bovine, caprine, and ovine species [11].
  • Bovine buffy coat cells infected with the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce syncytia formation in human diploid embryonic lung cells as well as in monolayer cell cultures of bovine, simian, ovine, bat, and caprine origin, but not in mouse fibroblast cells, normall rat kidney cells, or RSV-transformed rat cells [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of NORLEUCINE


Biological context of NORLEUCINE

  • Cell-free preparations of BLV and density gradient-purified virus also induce syncytia when added directly to diploid embryonic lung cells and to bovine, bat, and caprine monolayer cell cultures [12].
  • This study evaluated histopathology and mononuclear cell phenotypes in synovial lesions of chronic arthritis induced by experimental infection of Saanen goats with caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus [18].
  • A murine antiserum to Thy 1.2 and three caprine antisera to MuLV antigens that were active in complement-mediated cytotoxicity functioned poorly in inducing ADCC; however, rabbit antisera to similar antigens were 16- to 512-fold more efficient in cell-mediated than in complement lysis [19].
  • Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is distinct from visna and progressive pneumonia viruses as measured by genome sequence homology [20].
  • Severity of arthritis is predicted by antibody response to gp135 in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus [21].

Anatomical context of NORLEUCINE


Associations of NORLEUCINE with other chemical compounds


Gene context of NORLEUCINE


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NORLEUCINE


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  2. Infection of monocyte/macrophages by human T lymphotropic virus type III. Ho, D.D., Rota, T.R., Hirsch, M.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III shares sequence homology with a family of pathogenic lentiviruses. Gonda, M.A., Braun, M.J., Clements, J.E., Pyper, J.M., Wong-Staal, F., Gallo, R.C., Gilden, R.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
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  5. Lentivirus-host interactions: lessons from visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses. Narayan, O., Kennedy-Stoskopf, S., Zink, M.C. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Susceptibility of blood-derived monocytes and macrophages to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Anderson, L.W., Klevjer-Anderson, P., Liggitt, H.D. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Caprine and bovine B rotaviruses in western France: group identification by Northern hybridization. Gueguen, C., Maga, A., McCrae, M.A., Bataillon, G. Vet. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Suppression of prion protein in livestock by RNA interference. Golding, M.C., Long, C.R., Carmell, M.A., Hannon, G.J., Westhusin, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. High-resolution x-ray crystal structures of the villin headpiece subdomain, an ultrafast folding protein. Chiu, T.K., Kubelka, J., Herbst-Irmer, R., Eaton, W.A., Hofrichter, J., Davies, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Adaptive diversification within a large family of recently duplicated, placentally expressed genes. Hughes, A.L., Green, J.A., Garbayo, J.M., Roberts, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Isolation, primary structure, and synthesis of human hypothalamic somatocrinin: growth hormone-releasing factor. Ling, N., Esch, F., Böhlen, P., Brazeau, P., Wehrenberg, W.B., Guillemin, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of syncytia by the bovine C-type leukemia virus. Diglio, C.A., Ferrer, J.F. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the caprine (Capra hircus) beta-2 integrin CD18-encoding cDNA and identification of mutations potentially responsible for the ruminant-specific virulence of Mannheimia haemolytica. Zecchinon, L., Fett, T., Baise, E., Desmecht, D. Mol. Membr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Properties and prenatal ontogeny of beta-D-mannosidase in selected goat tissues. Pearce, R.D., Callahan, J.W., Little, P.B., Armstrong, D.T., Kiehm, D., Clarke, J.T. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein. Hötzel, I., Cheevers, W.P. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid detection of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide-specific antigen detection latex agglutination test. March, J.B., Gammack, C., Nicholas, R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The in vitro and in vivo anti-retrovirus activity, and intracellular metabolism of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine are highly dependent on the cell species. Balzarini, J., Pauwels, R., Baba, M., Herdewijn, P., de Clercq, E., Broder, S., Johns, D.G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunopathology of chronic lentivirus-induced arthritis. Wilkerson, M.J., Davis, W.C., Baszler, T.V., Cheevers, W.P. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against murine leukemia viral antigens: studies with human lymphoblastoid cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes as effector cells comparing rabbit, goat, and mouse antisera. Peters, C.J., Theofilopoulos, A.N. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is distinct from visna and progressive pneumonia viruses as measured by genome sequence homology. Roberson, S.M., McGuire, T.C., Klevjer-Anderson, P., Gorham, J.R., Cheevers, W.P. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Severity of arthritis is predicted by antibody response to gp135 in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Knowles, D., Cheevers, W., McGuire, T., Stem, T., Gorham, J. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Stem cell therapy in a caprine model of osteoarthritis. Murphy, J.M., Fink, D.J., Hunziker, E.B., Barry, F.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. The connective tissue component of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis syndrome. Crawford, T.B., Adams, D.S., Sande, R.D., Gorham, J.R., Henson, J.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Ultrastructural morphometric analysis of Brucella abortus-infected trophoblasts in experimental placentitis. Bacterial replication occurs in rough endoplasmic reticulum. Anderson, T.D., Cheville, N.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Lentivirus-induced interferon inhibits maturation and proliferation of monocytes and restricts the replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Zink, M.C., Narayan, O. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. In vitro autoradiographical localization of melatonin binding sites in the caprine brain. Deveson, S., Howarth, J.A., Arendt, J., Forsyth, I.A. J. Pineal Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of metabolism in the immediate effects and pneumotoxicity of 3-methylindole in goats. Breeze, R.G., Laegreid, W.W., Olcott, B.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunization with plasmid DNA expressing the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus envelope gene: quantitative and qualitative aspects of antibody response to viral surface glycoprotein. Beyer, J.C., Chebloune, Y., Mselli-Lakhal, L., Hötzel, I., Kumpula-McWhirter, N., Cheevers, W.P. Vaccine (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Localization of bovine trophoblast protein-1 in the cow blastocyst during implantation: an immunological cryoultrastructural study. Morgan, G., Wooding, F.B., Godkin, J.D. Placenta (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Haptenated nylon-coated polystyrene plates as a solid phase for ELISA. Verschoor, J.A., Vermeulen, N.M., Visser, L. J. Immunol. Methods (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Genetic variation among lentiviruses: homology between visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is confined to the 5' gag-pol region and a small portion of the env gene. Pyper, J.M., Clements, J.E., Molineaux, S.M., Narayan, O. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. STAT1 pathway is involved in activation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus long terminal repeat in monocytes. Sepp, T., Tong-Starksen, S.E. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Functional disruption of the prion protein gene in cloned goats. Yu, G., Chen, J., Yu, H., Liu, S., Chen, J., Xu, X., Sha, H., Zhang, X., Wu, G., Xu, S., Cheng, G. J. Gen. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular cloning and localization of caprine relaxin-like factor (RLF) mRNA within the goat testis. Hombach-Klonisch, S., Tetens, F., Kauffold, J., Steger, K., Fischer, B., Klonisch, T. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Developmental expression of pluripotency determining factors in caprine embryos: Novel pattern of NANOG protein localization in the nucleolus. He, S., Pant, D., Schiffmacher, A., Bischoff, S., Melican, D., Gavin, W., Keefer, C. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Histomorphometry of distraction osteogenesis in a caprine tibial lengthening model. Welch, R.D., Birch, J.G., Makarov, M.R., Samchukov, M.L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Caprine mucopolysaccharidosis-IIID: clinical, biochemical, morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Jones, M.Z., Alroy, J., Boyer, P.J., Cavanagh, K.T., Johnson, K., Gage, D., Vorro, J., Render, J.A., Common, R.S., Leedle, R.A., Lowrie, C., Sharp, P., Liour, S.S., Levene, B., Hoard, H., Lucas, R., Hopwood, J.J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Nucleotide sequence of the jaagsiekte retrovirus, an exogenous and endogenous type D and B retrovirus of sheep and goats. York, D.F., Vigne, R., Verwoerd, D.W., Querat, G. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Neutralizing antibody response of rabbits and goats to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Klevjer-Anderson, P., McGuire, T.C. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  40. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays a direct role in short-chain fatty acids absorption in caprine rumen. Kirat, D., Masuoka, J., Hayashi, H., Iwano, H., Yokota, H., Taniyama, H., Kato, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
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