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Gene Review

Rarb  -  retinoic acid receptor, beta

Mus musculus

Synonyms: A830025K23, Hap, Nr1b2, Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group B member 2, RAR beta 2, ...
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Disease relevance of Rarb


Psychiatry related information on Rarb

  • The administration of CD2665 to alcohol-treated mice totally reversed the working memory deficit and suppressed the overexpression of brain RARbeta, RXRbeta/gamma and tTG mRNA, whereas the same treatment in control mice decreased only the RARbeta mRNA level without affecting memory performance [6].

High impact information on Rarb

  • Transgenic embryos were generated carrying a Hoxb-8 transgene under control of the mouse RAR beta 2 promoter, which extends the normal expression domain to more anterior regions of the embryo [7].
  • Inositol increases flux through the inositol/lipid cycle, stimulating protein kinase C activity and upregulating expression of retinoic acid receptor beta, specifically in the caudal portion of the embryonic hindgut [8].
  • To investigate the specific role that RARs might play during development and in adult tissues, we have cloned the mouse RAR alpha and RAR beta (mRAR alpha and mRAR beta) [9].
  • This demonstrates the existence of two human retinoic acid receptors designated RAR-alpha and RAR-beta [10].
  • In the adult mouse, single and compound null mutations in the genes for retinoic acid receptor beta and retinoid X receptors beta and gamma resulted in locomotor defects related to dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopamine signaling pathway [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rarb


Biological context of Rarb

  • Separate RA- and Hox-responsive enhancers mediate the two phases of Rarb expression: a regulatory mechanism remarkably similar to that of Hoxb4 [16].
  • We demonstrate that Rarb isoform transcripts are the only known Rar transcripts to specifically localize to the proximal tubules and that RAREhsp68lacZ reporter transgene activity reveals endogenous RA signaling activity within these same proximal tubules [17].
  • In contrast, Rarb, a gene that maps to Chr 14 and which is not an Nnc1 candidate gene, has a significant effect on cell number and is therefore a QTL controlling this key population [1].
  • We measured eye weight, lens weight, retinal area, and retinal ganglion cell number in each of six genotypes (Rara and Rarb -/-, +/-, +/+; 10-25 cases/genotype) [1].
  • When compared with wild type RAR-beta, mutation of either Arg269 or Lys220 singly to the small neutral amino acid Ala had only a small effect on both the EC50 value in all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA transactivation assays and the apparent Kd for all-trans-RA [18].

Anatomical context of Rarb


Associations of Rarb with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Rarb


Regulatory relationships of Rarb


Other interactions of Rarb

  • In contrast, over-expression of RAR beta only poorly restored differentiation, although it could replace RAR gamma for the activation of target genes [29].
  • Additionally, we generated mice doubly mutated for Hoxd4 and Rarb in an attempt to identify common morphogenetic pathways between these two genes [19].
  • Antisense oligonucleotides to CRABP I and II alter the expression of TGF-beta 3, RAR-beta, and tenascin in primary cultures of embryonic palate cells [30].
  • We report here the generation of viable RARbeta2/RARgamma2 double null mutant mice, which exhibit several eye defects [4].
  • In contrast, a RAR beta-selective retinoid had little effect on Bmp-2 induction but repressed Bmp-4 [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rarb


  1. Modulation of retinal cell populations and eye size in retinoic acid receptor knockout mice. Zhou, G., Strom, R.C., Giguere, V., Williams, R.W. Mol. Vis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenovirus E1A functions as a cofactor for retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) through direct interaction with RAR beta. Folkers, G.E., van der Saag, P.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Retinoic acid-induced developmental defects are mediated by RARbeta/RXR heterodimers in the pharyngeal endoderm. Matt, N., Ghyselinck, N.B., Wendling, O., Chambon, P., Mark, M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Retinal dysplasia and degeneration in RARbeta2/RARgamma2 compound mutant mice. Grondona, J.M., Kastner, P., Gansmuller, A., Décimo, D., Chambon, P., Mark, M. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Retinoic acid-induced glandular metaplasia in mouse skin is linked to the dermal expression of retinoic acid receptor beta mRNA. Viallet, J.P., Ruberte, E., du Manoir, S., Krust, A., Zelent, A., Dhouailly, D. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. A retinoic acid receptor antagonist suppresses brain retinoic acid receptor overexpression and reverses a working memory deficit induced by chronic ethanol consumption in mice. Alfos, S., Boucheron, C., Pallet, V., Higueret, D., Enderlin, V., Béracochéa, D., Jaffard, R., Higueret, P. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Ectopic expression of Hoxb-8 causes duplication of the ZPA in the forelimb and homeotic transformation of axial structures. Charité, J., de Graaff, W., Shen, S., Deschamps, J. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Inositol prevents folate-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse. Greene, N.D., Copp, A.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning of murine alpha and beta retinoic acid receptors and a novel receptor gamma predominantly expressed in skin. Zelent, A., Krust, A., Petkovich, M., Kastner, P., Chambon, P. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a second human retinoic acid receptor. Brand, N., Petkovich, M., Krust, A., Chambon, P., de Thé, H., Marchio, A., Tiollais, P., Dejean, A. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Impaired locomotion and dopamine signaling in retinoid receptor mutant mice. Krezel, W., Ghyselinck, N., Samad, T.A., Dupé, V., Kastner, P., Borrelli, E., Chambon, P. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The biological activity of retinoids in melanoma cells. Induction of expression of retinoic acid receptor-beta by retinoic acid in S91 melanoma cells. Redfern, C.P., Daly, A.K., Latham, J.A., Todd, C. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Overexpression of retinoic acid receptor beta in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells increases their sensitivity to retinoid-induced suppression of squamous differentiation by retinoids. Wan, H., Oridate, N., Lotan, D., Hong, W.K., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of ligand induced promoter occupancy in vivo by a dominant negative RXR. Blanco, J.C., Dey, A., Leid, M., Minucci, S., Park, B.K., Jurutka, P.W., Haussler, M.R., Ozato, K. Genes Cells (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of the laminin beta 1 (LAMB1), retinoic acid receptor beta, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 genes in mutant F9 teratocarcinoma cell lines partially deficient in cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity. Shen, J., Li, C., Gudas, L.J. Cell Growth Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Direct crossregulation between retinoic acid receptor {beta} and Hox genes during hindbrain segmentation. Serpente, P., Tümpel, S., Ghyselinck, N.B., Niederreither, K., Wiedemann, L.M., Dollé, P., Chambon, P., Krumlauf, R., Gould, A.P. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Retinoic acid signaling regulates murine bronchial tubule formation. Chazaud, C., Dollé, P., Rossant, J., Mollard, R. Mech. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Arg269 and Lys220 of retinoic acid receptor-beta are important for the binding of retinoic acid. Tairis, N., Gabriel, J.L., Gyda, M., Soprano, K.J., Soprano, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. RARbeta mediates the response of Hoxd4 and Hoxb4 to exogenous retinoic acid. Folberg, A., Nagy Kovács, E., Luo, J., Giguère, V., Featherstone, M.S. Dev. Dyn. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins. II. Their differential pattern of transcription during early morphogenesis in mouse embryos. Ruberte, E., Dolle, P., Chambon, P., Morriss-Kay, G. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins. I. A systematic study of their differential pattern of transcription during mouse organogenesis. Dollé, P., Ruberte, E., Leroy, P., Morriss-Kay, G., Chambon, P. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. RAR-mediated epigenetic control of the cytochrome P450 Cyp26a1 in embryocarcinoma cells. Pozzi, S., Rossetti, S., Bistulfi, G., Sacchi, N. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Retinoic acid receptor-beta: immunodetection and phosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Rochette-Egly, C., Gaub, M.P., Lutz, Y., Ali, S., Scheuer, I., Chambon, P. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel family of Cys-Cys, His-Cys zinc finger transcription factors expressed in developing nervous system and pituitary gland. Jiang, Y., Yu, V.C., Buchholz, F., O'Connell, S., Rhodes, S.J., Candeloro, C., Xia, Y.R., Lusis, A.J., Rosenfeld, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR beta 2) null mutant mice appear normal. Mendelsohn, C., Mark, M., Dollé, P., Dierich, A., Gaub, M.P., Krust, A., Lampron, C., Chambon, P. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. TGF-beta modulates the expression of retinoic acid-induced RAR-beta in primary cultures of embryonic palate cells. Nugent, P., Potchinsky, M., Lafferty, C., Greene, R.M. Exp. Cell Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Quantification and localization of expression of the retinoic acid receptor-beta and -gamma mRNA isoforms during neurulation in mouse embryos with or without spina bifida. Mao, G.E., Collins, M.D. Teratology (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Age-related effects of ethanol consumption on triiodothyronine and retinoic acid nuclear receptors, neurogranin and neuromodulin expression levels in mouse brain. Boucheron, C., Alfos, S., Enderlin, V., Husson, M., Pallet, V., Jaffard, R., Higueret, P. Neurobiol. Aging (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Reexpression of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) gamma or overexpression of RAR alpha or RAR beta in RAR gamma-null F9 cells reveals a partial functional redundancy between the three RAR types. Taneja, R., Bouillet, P., Boylan, J.F., Gaub, M.P., Roy, B., Gudas, L.J., Chambon, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Antisense oligonucleotides to CRABP I and II alter the expression of TGF-beta 3, RAR-beta, and tenascin in primary cultures of embryonic palate cells. Nugent, P., Greene, R.M. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Receptor-selective retinoids implicate retinoic acid receptor alpha and gamma in the regulation of bmp-2 and bmp-4 in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. Rogers, M.B. Cell Growth Differ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Retinoic acid receptor beta 2 mRNA is elevated by retinoic acid in vivo in susceptible regions of mid-gestation mouse embryos. Harnish, D.C., Jiang, H., Soprano, K.J., Kochhar, D.M., Soprano, D.R. Dev. Dyn. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Tissue-specific expression of retinoic acid receptor isoform transcripts in the mouse embryo. Mollard, R., Viville, S., Ward, S.J., Décimo, D., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
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