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MeSH Review

Escape Reaction

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Psychiatry related information on Escape Reaction

  • In view of previous results indicating that the panic-promoting drug yohimbine increases flight/escape reactions and that the panicolytic compound alprazolam reduces these responses, we tentatively suggest that the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist pirenperone may have some efficacy in improving panic attacks [1].

High impact information on Escape Reaction


Chemical compound and disease context of Escape Reaction

  • Since part of the effects of NO involves increases in guanylate cyclase levels, we found that intra-dlPAG injection of 8-Br-cGMP induced a brief flight reaction followed by increased locomotion [7].
  • RESULTS: Diazepam significantly decreased flight reactions after the rat was introduced into the runway, reduced RA activities of mice chased by the rat, increased RA responses displayed when subjects were constrained in a straight alley and reduced defensive upright postures and biting upon forced contact [8].
  • Our results showed that a single dose of imipramine or fluoxetine strongly potentiated flight reactions in response to an approaching predator and increased defensive attack toward the rat [9].
  • Presynaptic inhibition is mediated by histamine and GABA in the crustacean escape reaction [10].
  • Microinjection of carbachol into the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHN) of freely moving rats evoked marked behavioral changes characterized by an escape reaction [11].

Anatomical context of Escape Reaction


Gene context of Escape Reaction

  • Careful analysis of each TFIIH subunit also shows how the p44 Ring finger participates in certain promoter escape reactions [13].
  • However, only a slight effect of the caspase inhibitor across the session was found. z-DEVD-fmk impaired development of some essential components of the two-way active avoidance performance, such as escape reaction, conditioned fear reaction, and inter-trial crossings [14].
  • Sympathetic activation in a "fight or flight reaction" may put the sensory systems for hearing and balance into a state of heightened alert via beta1-adrenergic receptors (beta1-AR) [15].
  • Intra-dlPAG injection of NMDA produced flight reactions characterized by crossings and jumps [16].
  • These results suggest that the neurochemical regulation of escape reactions respectively generated by LH or CG activation is partially different: dopamine seems to be involved only in CG aversion, whereas serotonin (5-HT) modulates both LH and CG escape reactions [12].


  1. 5-HT1A agonists modulate mouse antipredator defensive behavior differently from the 5-HT2A antagonist pirenperone. Griebel, G., Blanchard, D.C., Jung, A., Masuda, C.K., Blanchard, R.J. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Crayfish tonic inhibition: prolonged modulation of behavioral excitability by classical GABAergic inhibition. Vu, E.T., Krasne, F.B. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine lesions of crayfish serotonin-containing neurons: effect on the lateral giant escape reaction. Glanzman, D.L., Krasne, F.B. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Serotonin and octopamine have opposite modulatory effects on the crayfish's lateral giant escape reaction. Glanzman, D.L., Krasne, F.B. J. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of nitric oxide in brain regions related to defensive reactions. Guimarães, F.S., Beijamini, V., Moreira, F.A., Aguiar, D.C., de Lucca, A.C. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Gabaergic regulation of the neural organization of fear in the midbrain tectum. Brandão, M.L., Borelli, K.G., Nobre, M.J., Santos, J.M., Albrechet-Souza, L., Oliveira, A.R., Martinez, R.C. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of excitatory amino acids and nitric oxide on flight behavior elicited from the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. De Oliveira, R.M., Del Bel, E.A., Guimarães, F.S. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Behavioural profiles in the mouse defence test battery suggest anxiolytic potential of 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists. Griebel, G., Rodgers, R.J., Perrault, G., Sanger, D.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential modulation of antipredator defensive behavior in Swiss-Webster mice following acute or chronic administration of imipramine and fluoxetine. Griebel, G., Blanchard, D.C., Agnes, R.S., Blanchard, R.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Presynaptic inhibition is mediated by histamine and GABA in the crustacean escape reaction. el Manira, A., Clarac, F. J. Neurophysiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Opposing influences on behavior mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the rat posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Buccafusco, J.J., Brezenoff, H.E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of apomorphine, clonidine or 5-methoxy-NN-dimethyltryptamine on approach and escape components of lateral hypothalamic and mesencephalic central gray stimulation in two inbred strains of mice. Cazala, P., Garrigues, A.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. The 14th Datta Lecture. TFIIH: from transcription to clinic. Egly, J.M. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Central administration of a caspase inhibitor impairs shuttle-box performance in rats. Stepanichev, M.Y., Kudryashova, I.V., Yakovlev, A.A., Onufriev, M.V., Khaspekov, L.G., Lyzhin, A.A., Lazareva, N.A., Gulyaeva, N.V. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Localization of beta1-adrenergic receptors in the cochlea and the vestibular labyrinth. Fauser, C., Schimanski, S., Wangemann, P. J. Membr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Flight reactions induced by injection of glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist into the rat dorsolateral periaqueductal gray are not dependent on endogenous nitric oxide. Aguiar, D.C., Moreira, F.A., Guimarães, F.S. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2006) [Pubmed]
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