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Chemical Compound Review

ACMC-1AXFO     4-sulfanylidene-1H-pyrimidin- 2-one

Synonyms: AG-E-48956, AG-G-10342, CHEMBL1650608, SureCN2033825, ANW-33167, ...
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Disease relevance of KC 135

  • Also, E. coli mutants unable to synthesize an abundant sulfur-modified base, 4-thiouracil, nevertheless produced normal levels of selenium-modified tRNAs [1].
  • The effect of microgravity on cellulose synthesis using the model system of Acetobacter xylinum was the subject of recent investigations using The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Reduced Gravity Laboratory, a modified KC-135 aircraft designed to produce 20 sec of microgravity during the top of a parabolic dive [2].
  • Ocular torsion (OT) was measured in human subjects during horizontal linear acceleration on a sled in the laboratory and when emerging from weightlessness during parabolic flights in NASA's KC-135 aircraft [3].
  • During parabolic flight maneuvers in a Boeing KC-135 aircraft 44 college students were tested for motion sickness susceptibility [4].
  • Results in the new subjects supported the asymmetry hypothesis and confirmed previous findings that those with low scores of torsional disconjugacy on the KC-135 did not suffer space motion sickness in their prior Shuttle missions while those with high scores did [5].

High impact information on KC 135

  • Functionally active 70S ribosomes containing 4-thiouracil in place of uracil (substitution level 2%) were prepared by an in vivo substitution method [6].
  • When a 4-thiouracil (4sU) base analog that allows only imperfect base pairing with the nascent RNA is placed at different positions in the template, the efficiency of synthesis is correlated with the calculated stability of the template-nascent RNA duplex adjacent to the position of the 4sU [7].
  • We have used a site-specific cross-linking method based on 4-thiouracil (4-thioU) photochemistry to determine the conformation of TAR RNA and its interaction with Tat protein under physiological conditions [8].
  • Acute effects of fluid shifts on the cardiovascular system were monitored on NASA's KC-135 aircraft during parabolic flight [9].
  • Blood flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery were measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound in NASA's KC-135 aircraft from four healthy subjects in the supine position [10].

Biological context of KC 135

  • Preliminary studies carried out with this system on the NASA KC-135 aircraft, which provides brief periods of weightlessness, showed a strong correlation between cardiac filling, stroke volume, and the presence or absence of gravity [11].
  • We measured intraocular pressures and retinal vascular diameters from 11 subjects during 20 seconds of microgravity produced by parabolic flight on board a KC-135 aircraft [12].
  • KC-135 flights for life science activities [13].
  • Characteristics of human vertical optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and afternystagmus (OKAN) were examined by ISCAN imaging system on the ground and on board NASA's KC-135 aircraft in a parabolic flight study [14].

Anatomical context of KC 135

  • Several aspects of ocular counterrolling and spontaneous eye torsion, reflexes governed by the otoliths, were examined during the hypo- and hypergravity in parabolic flight on the NASA KC-135 aircraft [15].

Associations of KC 135 with other chemical compounds

  • To reduce thermal convective currents and to develop valuable experience in designing an experiment for the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility aboard Space Station Freedom we have built and flown a new chamber to study these processes under periods of microgravity available on NASA's KC-135 Research Aircraft [16].
  • We report here the STARDUST experience, a recent collaborative effort that brings together a successful American program of microgravity experiments on particle formation aboard NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft and several Italian research groups with expertise in microgravity research and astrophysical dust formation [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KC 135

  • DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively) [18].
  • The KC-135 provides a unique short-term environment that allows measurement of the human response to variations in acceleration but limits physiological monitoring of responses to a steady state of microgravity [19].
  • The effects of gravity on the crystallization of ZrF(4)-BaF(2)-LaF(3)-AlF(3)-NaF glasses have been studied using the NASA KC-135 and a sounding rocket [20].
  • Results obtained by the investigators in ground-based experiments and in two parabolic flight series of tests aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft with a hydraulic simulator of the human systemic circulation have confirmed that a simple lack of hydrostatic pressure within an artificial ventricle causes a decrease in stroke volume of 20%-50% [21].
  • Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design [22].


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  2. Gravity effects on cellulose assembly. Brown, R.M., Kudlicka, K., Cousins, S.K., Nagy, R. Am. J. Bot. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Ocular torsion on earth and in weightlessness. Young, L.R., Lichtenberg, B.K., Arrott, A.P., Crites, T.A., Oman, C.M., Edelman, E.R. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Elicitation of motion sickness by head movements in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight maneuvers. Lackner, J.R., Graybiel, A. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Further evidence to support disconjugate eye torsion as a predictor of space motion sickness. Markham, C.H., Diamond, S.G. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Multiple crosslinks of proteins S7, S9, S13 to domains 3 and 4 of 16S RNA in the 30S particle. Hajnsdorf, E., Favre, A., Expert-Bezançon, A. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Template nucleotide moieties required for de novo initiation of RNA synthesis by a recombinant viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Kim, M.J., Zhong, W., Hong, Z., Kao, C.C. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. RNA conformation in the Tat-TAR complex determined by site-specific photo-cross-linking. Wang, Z., Rana, T.M. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Acute hemodynamic responses to weightlessness during parabolic flight. Mukai, C.N., Lathers, C.M., Charles, J.B., Bennett, B.S., Igarashi, M., Patel, S. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcranial Doppler studies of flow velocity in middle cerebral artery in weightlessness. Bondar, R.L., Stein, F., Vaitkus, P.J., Johnston, K.W., Chadwick, L.C., Norris, J.W. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Feedback control of mean aortic pressure in a dynamic model of the cardiovascular system. O'Leary, D.S., Pantalos, G.M., Sharp, M.K. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Intraocular pressure and retinal vascular changes during transient exposure to microgravity. Mader, T.H., Gibson, C.R., Caputo, M., Hunter, N., Taylor, G., Charles, J., Meehan, R.T. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. KC-135 flights for life science activities. Rossberg Walker, K., Hughes-Fulford, M., Schmidt, G. ASGSB bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Modification of vertical OKN and vertical OKAN asymmetry in humans during parabolic flight. Wei, G., Lafortune-Kahane, S., Ireland, D., Jell, R. Journal of vestibular research : equilibrium & orientation. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Instability of ocular torsion in zero gravity: possible implications for space motion sickness. Diamond, S.G., Markham, C.H., Money, K.E. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Cosmic dust analog simulation in a microgravity environment: the STARDUST program. Ferguson, F., Lilleleht, L.U., Nuth, J., Stephens, J.R., Bussoletti, E., Carotenuto, L., Colangeli, L., Dell'Aversana, P., Mele, F., Mennella, V., Mirra, C. Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. An overview of the cosmic dust analogue material production in reduced gravity: the STARDUST experience. Ferguson, F., Lilleleht, L.U., Nuth, J., Stephens, J.R., Bussoletti, E., Colangeli, L., Mennella, V., Dell'Aversana, P., Mirra, C. Microgravity quarterly : MGQ. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Physical examination during space flight. Harris, B.A., Billica, R.D., Bishop, S.L., Blackwell, T., Layne, C.S., Harm, D.L., Sandoz, G.R., Rosenow, E.C. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Cerebral blood flow velocities by transcranial Doppler during parabolic flight. Bondar, R.L., Stein, F., Kassam, M.S., Dunphy, P.T., Bennett, B.S., Johnston, K.W. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of Gravity on ZBLAN Glass Crystallization. Tucker, D.S., Ethridge, E.C., Smith, G.A., Workman, G. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of gravity on cardiac performance. Pantalos, G.M., Sharp, M.K., Woodruff, S.J., O'Leary, D.S., Lorange, R., Everett, S.D., Bennett, T.E., Shurfranz, T. Annals of biomedical engineering. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine. Norfleet, W.T., Degioanni, J.J., Calkins, D.S., Reschke, M.F., Bungo, M.W., Kutyna, F.A., Homick, J.L. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
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