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Gene Review

HIV2gp5  -  tat protein

Human immunodeficiency virus 2

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Disease relevance of HIV2gp5


High impact information on HIV2gp5


Chemical compound and disease context of HIV2gp5


Biological context of HIV2gp5


Anatomical context of HIV2gp5


Associations of HIV2gp5 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, a Tat protein that contained a deletion of the proline-rich domain promoted neuronal aggregation [24].
  • A number of studies have documented the neurotoxic property of Tat protein, and Tat has therefore been proposed to contribute to AIDS-associated neurological diseases [14].
  • The percentage of the responders and the Ab titers continued to increase after three additional DNA boosts and pretreatment with bupivacaine at the site of inoculation, without a significant difference (p > 0.05) among the three groups of mice immunized with mutant and wild-type tat genes [25].
  • Tat protein induced a rapid and transient Ca(2+) influx in basophils and mast cells, analogous to beta-chemokines [26].
  • Tat protein neither induced histamine release from human basophils and mast cells nor increased IL-3-stimulated histamine secretion from basophils [26].

Other interactions of HIV2gp5

  • Overexpression of Rev protein did not rescue the synthesis of HIV-1 proteins in these cells; however, the observed inhibition of HIV-1 RNA translation was efficiently overcome in the presence of Tat protein or TNF-alpha [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HIV2gp5


  1. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a substrate and inhibitor of the interferon-induced, virally activated protein kinase, PKR. Brand, S.R., Kobayashi, R., Mathews, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. A nuclear translational block imposed by the HIV-1 U3 region is relieved by the Tat-TAR interaction. Braddock, M., Thorburn, A.M., Chambers, A., Elliott, G.D., Anderson, G.J., Kingsman, A.J., Kingsman, S.M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of the equine infectious anemia virus Tat protein. Willbold, D., Rosin-Arbesfeld, R., Sticht, H., Frank, R., Rösch, P. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Human immunodeficiency viruses regulated by alternative trans-activators: genetic evidence for a novel non-transcriptional function of Tat in virion infectivity. Huang, L.M., Joshi, A., Willey, R., Orenstein, J., Jeang, K.T. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 Tat proteins specifically interact with RNA polymerase II. Mavankal, G., Ignatius Ou, S.H., Oliver, H., Sigman, D., Gaynor, R.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. HIV-1 Tat protein trans-activates transcription in vitro. Marciniak, R.A., Calnan, B.J., Frankel, A.D., Sharp, P.A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Blocking of Tat-dependent HIV-1 RNA modification by an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II processivity. Braddock, M., Thorburn, A.M., Kingsman, A.J., Kingsman, S.M. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Tat protein of HIV-1 stimulates growth of cells derived from Kaposi's sarcoma lesions of AIDS patients. Ensoli, B., Barillari, G., Salahuddin, S.Z., Gallo, R.C., Wong-Staal, F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Arginine-mediated RNA recognition: the arginine fork. Calnan, B.J., Tidor, B., Biancalana, S., Hudson, D., Frankel, A.D. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by Tat protein from HIV-1. Viscidi, R.P., Mayur, K., Lederman, H.M., Frankel, A.D. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of arginine-rich peptides from the HIV Tat protein reveals unusual features of RNA-protein recognition. Calnan, B.J., Biancalana, S., Hudson, D., Frankel, A.D. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, a growth factor for AIDS Kaposi sarcoma and cytokine-activated vascular cells, induces adhesion of the same cell types by using integrin receptors recognizing the RGD amino acid sequence. Barillari, G., Gendelman, R., Gallo, R.C., Ensoli, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 represses expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in HeLa cells. Flores, S.C., Marecki, J.C., Harper, K.P., Bose, S.K., Nelson, S.K., McCord, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Neuropathologies in transgenic mice expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein under the regulation of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter and doxycycline. Kim, B.O., Liu, Y., Ruan, Y., Xu, Z.C., Schantz, L., He, J.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Multiple interactions of HIV-I Tat protein with size-defined heparin oligosaccharides. Rusnati, M., Tulipano, G., Spillmann, D., Tanghetti, E., Oreste, P., Zoppetti, G., Giacca, M., Presta, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The HIV-1 Tat protein activates transcription from an upstream DNA-binding site: implications for Tat function. Southgate, C.D., Green, M.R. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence that HIV-1 encodes an siRNA and a suppressor of RNA silencing. Bennasser, Y., Le, S.Y., Benkirane, M., Jeang, K.T. Immunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Tat is required for efficient HIV-1 reverse transcription. Harrich, D., Ulich, C., García-Martínez, L.F., Gaynor, R.B. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. The hnRNP A1 protein regulates HIV-1 tat splicing via a novel intron silencer element. Tange, T.O., Damgaard, C.K., Guth, S., Valcárcel, J., Kjems, J. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Trans-activation of HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by tat requires protein kinase C. Jakobovits, A., Rosenthal, A., Capon, D.J. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell adhesion site in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transactivation protein, tat. Brake, D.A., Debouck, C., Biesecker, G. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. HIV-1 Tat potentiates TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation and cytotoxicity by altering the cellular redox state. Westendorp, M.O., Shatrov, V.A., Schulze-Osthoff, K., Frank, R., Kraft, M., Los, M., Krammer, P.H., Dröge, W., Lehmann, V. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Angiogenic effects of extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein and its role in the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Barillari, G., Ensoli, B. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein promotes aggregation and adhesion of cerebellar neurons. Orsini, M.J., Debouck, C.M., Webb, C.L., Lysko, P.G. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. DNA immunization with HIV-1 tat mutated in the trans activation domain induces humoral and cellular immune responses against wild-type Tat. Caselli, E., Betti, M., Grossi, M.P., Balboni, P.G., Rossi, C., Boarini, C., Cafaro, A., Barbanti-Brodano, G., Ensoli, B., Caputo, A. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Tat protein is an HIV-1-encoded beta-chemokine homolog that promotes migration and up-regulates CCR3 expression on human Fc epsilon RI+ cells. de Paulis, A., De Palma, R., Di Gioia, L., Carfora, M., Prevete, N., Tosi, G., Accolla, R.S., Marone, G. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. The presence of tat protein or tumor necrosis factor alpha is critical for herpes simplex virus type 1-induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Popik, W., Pitha, P.M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. A Tat subunit vaccine confers protective immunity against the immune-modulating activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein in mice. Agwale, S.M., Shata, M.T., Reitz, M.S., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Gallo, R.C., Popovic, M., Hone, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Intracellular analysis of in vitro modified HIV Tat protein. Koken, S.E., Greijer, A.E., Verhoef, K., van Wamel, J., Bukrinskaya, A.G., Berkhout, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Formation of a small ribonucleoprotein particle between Tat protein and trans-acting response element in human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. Pfeifer, K., Bachmann, M., Schröder, H.C., Weiler, B.E., Ugarkovic, D., Okamoto, T., Müller, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of the human neurotropic virus promoter by JCV-T antigen and HIV-1 tat protein. Chowdhury, M., Taylor, J.P., Tada, H., Rappaport, J., Wong-Staal, F., Amini, S., Khalili, K. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. trans activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is sequence specific for both the single-stranded bulge and loop of the trans-acting-responsive hairpin: a quantitative analysis. Berkhout, B., Jeang, K.T. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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