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Chemical Compound Review

Akerstox     (5R,8R,11R,12S,15S,18R,19S,22R )-15-[3...

Synonyms: Toxin-LR, Microcystin-a, Microcystin-LR, HSDB 7751, AC1O5MXK, ...
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Disease relevance of Toxin-LR


High impact information on Toxin-LR


Biological context of Toxin-LR

  • CsA also prevented MLR-induced calpain activation and cell death, suggesting that the activation of calpain may be a post-mitochondrial event [9].
  • Various mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitors effectively prevented the onset of MPT, suggesting that the mitochondrial ETC plays an important role in MLR-induced MPT [9].
  • These data demonstrate for the first time that calpain rather than caspases plays an important role in MLR-induced apoptosis [9].
  • Microcystin, a worldwide common cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, was the first metabolite whose nonribosomal biosynthesis could be confirmed by knock-out mutagenesis [10].
  • In vitro platelet aggregation or lysis did not occur during incubation with toxin-LR, nor was a humoral aggregating factor detected in plasma from toxin-injected mice [4].

Anatomical context of Toxin-LR


Associations of Toxin-LR with other chemical compounds

  • In primary rat hepatocyte cultures, all MAbs showed protective effects against the MCLR-induced cell damages, assessed by morphological changes, lactate dehydrogenase release into the medium, and a calorimetric assay to measure the cell viability using a tetrazolium dye [13].
  • Spectral changes exhibited by the binding of MLR, VLM and ENB to dansyl-CaM as compared to that of CSA and GRS reflected different binding sites and/or different conformational changes [14].

Gene context of Toxin-LR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Toxin-LR

  • Three IC MAbs were obtained, all of which specifically reacted with the IC, but almost never reacted to MC MAb or MCLR in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) [16].
  • Intracellular perfusion with microcystin, a potent phosphatase 1 and 2a inhibitor, increased both endogenous and exogenous AMPA receptor-mediated currents, further supporting a role of phosphorylation in modulating motoneuronal excitability affecting behaviorally relevant synaptic inputs [17].


  1. A mannan binding lectin is involved in cell-cell attachment in a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa. Kehr, J.C., Zilliges, Y., Springer, A., Disney, M.D., Ratner, D.D., Bouchier, C., Seeberger, P.H., de Marsac, N.T., Dittmann, E. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Microcystis aeruginosa toxin: cell culture toxicity, hemolysis, and mutagenicity assays. Grabow, W.O., Du Randt, W.C., Prozesky, O.W., Scott, W.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Pathophysiology of cyanoginosin-LR: in vivo and in vitro studies. Adams, W.H., Stone, J.P., Sylvester, B., Stoner, R.D., Slatkin, D.N., Tempel, N.R., Siegelman, H.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathophysiologic effects of a toxic peptide from Microcystis aeruginosa. Adams, W.H., Stoner, R.D., Adams, D.G., Slatkin, D.N., Siegelman, H.W. Toxicon (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Risk assessment of microcystin in dietary Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Schaeffer, D.J., Malpas, P.B., Barton, L.L. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with the Src kinase substrate p130(CAS). Yokoyama, N., Miller, W.T. Oncogene (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased synthase phosphatase activity is responsible for the super-activation of glycogen synthase in hepatocytes from fasted obese Zucker rats. Lavoie, L., Bollen, M., Stalmans, W., van de Werve, G. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. A rapid competitive binding nonseparation electrochemical enzyme immunoassay (NEEIA) test strip for microcystin-LR (MCLR) determination. Zhang, F., Yang, S.H., Kang, T.Y., Cha, G.S., Nam, H., Meyerhoff, M.E. Biosensors & bioelectronics (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Calpain activation after mitochondrial permeability transition in microcystin-induced cell death in rat hepatocytes. Ding, W.X., Shen, H.M., Ong, C.N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular biology of peptide and polyketide biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Dittmann, E., Neilan, B.A., Börner, T. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Deformation of isolated rat hepatocytes by a peptide hepatotoxin from the blue-green alga microcystis aeruginosa. Runnegar, M.T., Falconer, I.R., Silver, J. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contractility induced by ruthenium red. Yamada, A., Ohya, S., Hirano, M., Watanabe, M., Walsh, M.P., Imaizumi, Y. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Novel monoclonal antibodies against microcystin and their protective activity for hepatotoxicity. Nagata, S., Soutome, H., Tsutsumi, T., Hasegawa, A., Sekijima, M., Sugamata, M., Harada, K., Suganuma, M., Ueno, Y. Nat. Toxins (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Interaction of cyclic peptides and depsipeptides with calmodulin. Mereish, K.A., Solow, R., Bunner, D.L., Fajer, A.B. Pept. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies against anti-microcystin antibody and their use in enzyme immunoassay. Tsutsumi, T., Nagata, S., Yoshida, F., Ueno, Y. Toxicon (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. A new type sandwich immunoassay for microcystin: production of monoclonal antibodies specific to the immune complex formed by microcystin and an anti-microcystin monoclonal antibody. Nagata, S., Tsutsumi, T., Yoshida, F., Ueno, Y. Nat. Toxins (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Dynamic modulation of inspiratory drive currents by protein kinase A and protein phosphatases in functionally active motoneurons. Bocchiaro, C.M., Saywell, S.A., Feldman, J.L. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
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