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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Fetal Development

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Disease relevance of Fetal Development


Psychiatry related information on Fetal Development


High impact information on Fetal Development

  • During mouse embryonic development, PMCA1 is ubiquitously detected from the earliest time points, and all isoforms show spatially overlapping but distinct expression patterns with dynamic temporal changes occurring during late fetal development [9].
  • The paternally expressed Igf2 encodes a potent fetal growth factor and the maternally expressed H19 encodes a non-coding RNA (refs 1,2) [10].
  • Here we show that Stat5 is essential for the high erythropoietic rate during fetal development [11].
  • Fetal insulin secretion in response to maternal glycaemia plays a key role in fetal growth, and adult insulin secretion is a primary determinant of glucose tolerance [12].
  • A transcription factor, Cbfa1, which belongs to the runt-domain gene family, is expressed restrictively in fetal development [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fetal Development


Biological context of Fetal Development


Anatomical context of Fetal Development


Associations of Fetal Development with chemical compounds


Gene context of Fetal Development

  • Furthermore, they mark the emergence of satellite cells during fetal development, and do not require Pax3 function [34].
  • These results show that Igf2r is paternally imprinted and reveal that the receptor is crucial for regulating normal fetal growth, circulating levels of IGF2, and heart development [35].
  • However, the absolute number of HSCs increased during fetal development in the Sl/Sl mice [36].
  • The result indicates that Grb10 action is essentially independent of insulin-like growth factor 2, providing evidence that imprinting acts on at least two major fetal growth axes in a manner consistent with parent-offspring conflict theory [37].
  • To determine the direct effects of PAX2 mutations on kidney development fetal kidneys of mice carrying a Pax2 (1Neu)mutation were examined [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fetal Development


  1. Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. Wang, X., Zuckerman, B., Pearson, C., Kaufman, G., Chen, C., Wang, G., Niu, T., Wise, P.H., Bauchner, H., Xu, X. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Retinoic acid embryopathy: timing of exposure and effects on fetal development. Hersh, J.H., Danhauer, D.E., Hand, M.E., Weisskopf, B. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Human red cell Aquaporin CHIP. II. Expression during normal fetal development and in a novel form of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. Agre, P., Smith, B.L., Baumgarten, R., Preston, G.M., Pressman, E., Wilson, P., Illum, N., Anstee, D.J., Lande, M.B., Zeidel, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Placental lactogen administration reverses the effect of low-protein diet on maternal and fetal serum somatomedin levels in the pregnant rat. Pilistine, S.J., Moses, A.C., Munro, H.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Heme oxygenase expression in human placenta and placental bed: reduced expression of placenta endothelial HO-2 in preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Barber, A., Robson, S.C., Myatt, L., Bulmer, J.N., Lyall, F. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, caffeine consumption, and fetal growth: results from a prospective study. Shu, X.O., Hatch, M.C., Mills, J., Clemens, J., Susser, M. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Proteomic signatures and aberrations of mouse embryonic stem cells containing a single human chromosome 21 in neuronal differentiation: an in vitro model of Down syndrome. Kadota, M., Nishigaki, R., Wang, C.C., Toda, T., Shirayoshi, Y., Inoue, T., Gojobori, T., Ikeo, K., Rogers, M.S., Oshimura, M. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Dietary choline deficiency alters global and gene-specific DNA methylation in the developing hippocampus of mouse fetal brains. Niculescu, M.D., Craciunescu, C.N., Zeisel, S.H. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of alternative splicing in generating isoform diversity among plasma membrane calcium pumps. Strehler, E.E., Zacharias, D.A. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Deletion of a silencer element in Igf2 results in loss of imprinting independent of H19. Constância, M., Dean, W., Lopes, S., Moore, T., Kelsey, G., Reik, W. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Fetal anemia and apoptosis of red cell progenitors in Stat5a-/-5b-/- mice: a direct role for Stat5 in Bcl-X(L) induction. Socolovsky, M., Fallon, A.E., Wang, S., Brugnara, C., Lodish, H.F. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Hattersley, A.T., Beards, F., Ballantyne, E., Appleton, M., Harvey, R., Ellard, S. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Targeted disruption of Cbfa1 results in a complete lack of bone formation owing to maturational arrest of osteoblasts. Komori, T., Yagi, H., Nomura, S., Yamaguchi, A., Sasaki, K., Deguchi, K., Shimizu, Y., Bronson, R.T., Gao, Y.H., Inada, M., Sato, M., Okamoto, R., Kitamura, Y., Yoshiki, S., Kishimoto, T. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Melatonin protects against oxidative mitochondrial damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia and reperfusion. Okatani, Y., Wakatsuki, A., Shinohara, K., Taniguchi, K., Fukaya, T. J. Pineal Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Glucose suppression of insulin secretion in chronically hyperglycemic fetal sheep. Carver, T.D., Anderson, S.M., Aldoretta, P.A., Esler, A.L., Hay, W.W. Pediatr. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The cortisol-cortisone shuttle in children born with intrauterine growth retardation. Houang, M., Morineau, G., le Bouc, Y., Fiet, J., Gourmelen, M. Pediatr. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. The risk of maternal nutritional depletion and poor outcomes increases in early or closely spaced pregnancies. King, J.C. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Hypoxia down-regulates placenta growth factor, whereas fetal growth restriction up-regulates placenta growth factor expression: molecular evidence for "placental hyperoxia" in intrauterine growth restriction. Khaliq, A., Dunk, C., Jiang, J., Shams, M., Li, X.F., Acevedo, C., Weich, H., Whittle, M., Ahmed, A. Lab. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Repression of the insulin-like growth factor II gene by the Wilms tumor suppressor WT1. Drummond, I.A., Madden, S.L., Rohwer-Nutter, P., Bell, G.I., Sukhatme, V.P., Rauscher, F.J. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Activin/inhibin beta B subunit gene disruption leads to defects in eyelid development and female reproduction. Vassalli, A., Matzuk, M.M., Gardner, H.A., Lee, K.F., Jaenisch, R. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The fetal insulin hypothesis: an alternative explanation of the association of low birthweight with diabetes and vascular disease. Hattersley, A.T., Tooke, J.E. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Retinol-binding protein and transthyretin mRNA levels in visceral yolk sac and liver during fetal development in the rat. Soprano, D.R., Soprano, K.J., Goodman, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Transferrin as a fetal growth factor: acquisition of responsiveness related to embryonic induction. Ekblom, P., Thesleff, I., Saxén, L., Miettinen, A., Timpl, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Placental-specific IGF-II is a major modulator of placental and fetal growth. Constância, M., Hemberger, M., Hughes, J., Dean, W., Ferguson-Smith, A., Fundele, R., Stewart, F., Kelsey, G., Fowden, A., Sibley, C., Reik, W. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Complementary signaling through flt3 and interleukin-7 receptor alpha is indispensable for fetal and adult B cell genesis. Sitnicka, E., Brakebusch, C., Martensson, I.L., Svensson, M., Agace, W.W., Sigvardsson, M., Buza-Vidas, N., Bryder, D., Cilio, C.M., Ahlenius, H., Maraskovsky, E., Peschon, J.J., Jacobsen, S.E. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Ontogenesis of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the human fetal pancreas. A combined radioimmunological and immunocytochemical study. Leduque, P., Aratan-Spire, S., Czernichow, P., Dubois, P.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of AT2 receptors in the developing rat fetus. Grady, E.F., Sechi, L.A., Griffin, C.A., Schambelan, M., Kalinyak, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Roles of serum thyroxine-binding proteins and maternal thyroid hormones in fetal development. Ekins, R. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth. Zuckerman, B., Frank, D.A., Hingson, R., Amaro, H., Levenson, S.M., Kayne, H., Parker, S., Vinci, R., Aboagye, K., Fried, L.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Noradrenaline is essential for mouse fetal development. Thomas, S.A., Matsumoto, A.M., Palmiter, R.D. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Transport and storage of vitamin A. Blomhoff, R., Green, M.H., Berg, T., Norum, K.R. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Isolation of chicken vitellogenin I and III cDNAs and the developmental regulation of five estrogen-responsive genes in the embryonic liver. Evans, M.I., Silva, R., Burch, J.B. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Moderate caffeine use and the risk of spontaneous abortion and intrauterine growth retardation. Mills, J.L., Holmes, L.B., Aarons, J.H., Simpson, J.L., Brown, Z.A., Jovanovic-Peterson, L.G., Conley, M.R., Graubard, B.I., Knopp, R.H., Metzger, B.E. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development. Kassar-Duchossoy, L., Giacone, E., Gayraud-Morel, B., Jory, A., Gomès, D., Tajbakhsh, S. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Loss of the imprinted IGF2/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor results in fetal overgrowth and perinatal lethality. Lau, M.M., Stewart, C.E., Liu, Z., Bhatt, H., Rotwein, P., Stewart, C.L. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Evidence that hematopoietic stem cells express mouse c-kit but do not depend on steel factor for their generation. Ikuta, K., Weissman, I.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Disruption of the imprinted Grb10 gene leads to disproportionate overgrowth by an Igf2-independent mechanism. Charalambous, M., Smith, F.M., Bennett, W.R., Crew, T.E., Mackenzie, F., Ward, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Primary renal hypoplasia in humans and mice with PAX2 mutations: evidence of increased apoptosis in fetal kidneys of Pax2(1Neu) +/- mutant mice. Porteous, S., Torban, E., Cho, N.P., Cunliffe, H., Chua, L., McNoe, L., Ward, T., Souza, C., Gus, P., Giugliani, R., Sato, T., Yun, K., Favor, J., Sicotte, M., Goodyer, P., Eccles, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Leptin and leptin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the murine fetus and placenta. Hoggard, N., Hunter, L., Duncan, J.S., Williams, L.M., Trayhurn, P., Mercer, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Structure-function analyses of thrombomodulin by gene-targeting in mice: the cytoplasmic domain is not required for normal fetal development. Conway, E.M., Pollefeyt, S., Cornelissen, J., DeBaere, I., Steiner-Mosonyi, M., Weitz, J.I., Weiler-Guettler, H., Carmeliet, P., Collen, D. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. WISP3-dependent regulation of type II collagen and aggrecan production in chondrocytes. Sen, M., Cheng, Y.H., Goldring, M.B., Lotz, M.K., Carson, D.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  42. Effects of fetal insulin deficiency on growth in fetal lambs. Philipps, A.F., Rosenkrantz, T.S., Clark, R.M., Knox, I., Chaffin, D.G., Raye, J.R. Diabetes (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Impact of restriction of placental and fetal growth on expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 messenger ribonucleic acid in the liver, kidney, and adrenal of the sheep fetus. McMillen, I.C., Warnes, K.E., Adams, M.B., Robinson, J.S., Owens, J.A., Coulter, C.L. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
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