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Chemical Compound Review

Enzactin     2,3-diacetyloxypropyl ethanoate

Synonyms: triacetin, Fungacetin, Glyped, Triacetina, Triacetine, ...
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Disease relevance of Enzactin

  • Because of its water solubility, lack of toxicity, and favorable effects on protein metabolism, further studies are warranted regarding the use of triacetin as a parenteral nutrient [1].
  • In addition, expression of the est gene conferred on E. coli the ability to grow on simple triglycerides such as triacetin (TAC) [2].
  • Reports of 1,2-glyceryl diesters, which may be present in Triacetin, affecting cell growth and proliferation raised the possibility of hyperplasia and/or tumor promotion [3].

High impact information on Enzactin

  • In conclusion, during intravenous administration in dogs, the majority of infused triacetin undergoes intravascular hydrolysis, and the majority of the resulting acetate is oxidized [4].
  • Animals received infusions of triacetin at 1.0 x estimated resting energy expenditure (REE), hyperenergetic triacetin at 1.5 x REE, glycerol, or saline during infusion of [1-14C]leucine [1].
  • There was no difference in leucine oxidation between the dogs given triacetin at 1.0 x REE and control groups, whereas leucine oxidation decreased by 53% during triacetin infusion at 1.5 x REE (P < 0.05) [1].
  • In the present study triacetin was administered intravenously to mongrel dogs (n = 10) 2 wk after surgical placement of blood-sampling catheters in the aorta and in the portal, hepatic, renal, and femoral veins [4].
  • Parenteral nutrition with 50% triacetin and 50% LCTs promoted a positive nitrogen balance similar to that of 100% LCTs, increased protein in rectus muscle and liver, smaller and more numerous mucosal cells in jejunum and colon, and increased colonic mucosal weight compared with the other groups [5].

Biological context of Enzactin


Anatomical context of Enzactin


Associations of Enzactin with other chemical compounds

  • Lastly, digital Fourier filtering alone is shown to have only limited ability to isolate glucose signals from those of BSA and triacetin due to similarities in the widths of the absorption bands of the three species [14].
  • Crosses were set up within each of these inbred lines such that simple mendelian ratios were expected, and eggs from these crosses were placed on media with additions simple chemicals likely to interact with alleles of the two loci--octanol and ethanol for the ODH locus and tributyrin and triacetin for the E-5 locus [15].
  • These results indicate that incorporation of the short-chain triglyceride, triacetin, in nutritionally balanced total parenteral nutrition formulas improves nitrogen balance with no overt toxic effects [16].
  • Secondary plasticizers with a low molecular weight and a solubility parameter similar to that of Eudragit E-100 polymer and triacetin were compatible [17].
  • DSC thermograms supported the findings of the tensile test: plasticizers with several small ester groups (e.g., triacetin and triethyl citrate) were the most compatible with SA [18].

Gene context of Enzactin

  • BSA and triacetin are used to model the protein and triglycerides in blood, respectively, and are present in levels spanning the normal human physiological range [19].
  • The results showed that the recombinant cholesterol esterase displayed both lipolytic and lipoamidase activities and was capable of hydrolysing triacetin and lipoyl-4-aminobenzoate (LPAB) [20].
  • IR (Ar, 13 K) and ESR (triacetin, 77 K) data are compatible with the generation of triplet halocarbenonitrenes 2-X, (X = F, Cl, and Br) [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Enzactin

  • An excess of triacetin was added to the emulsion so that water could be extracted into the continuous phase, allowing the insulin-loaded microsphere precipitation [22].
  • We have therefore used triacetin as a substrate and compared out method with potentiometry (pH-stat) and spectrophotometry [23].
  • The qualitative and quantitative analytical methods were proposed for the simple and rapid determination of triacetin (TAc) in commercial gummy candies and other foodstuffs by gas chromatography (GC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) [24].


  1. Effect of parenteral administration of short-chain triglycerides on leucine metabolism. Bailey, J.W., Miles, J.M., Haymond, M.W. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of an esterase-coding gene from the oil-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1. Reddy, P.G., Allon, R., Mevarech, M., Mendelovitz, S., Sato, Y., Gutnick, D.L. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Final report on the safety assessment of triacetin. Fiume, M.Z. International journal of toxicology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolism of triacetin-derived acetate in dogs. Bleiberg, B., Beers, T.R., Persson, M., Miles, J.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Parenteral nutrition with short- and long-chain triglycerides: triacetin reduces atrophy of small and large bowel mucosa and improves protein metabolism in burned rats. Karlstad, M.D., Killeffer, J.A., Bailey, J.W., DeMichele, S.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Microemulsions as transdermal drug delivery vehicles. Kogan, A., Garti, N. Advances in colloid and interface science (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A new parenteral emulsion for the administration of taxol. Tarr, B.D., Sambandan, T.G., Yalkowsky, S.H. Pharm. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Acetate-glucose relationship in growing pigs. Imoto, S., Namioka, S. J. Anim. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of Humicola lanuginosa lipase dissolved in its substrate. Jutila, A., Zhu, K., Tuominen, E.K., Kinnunen, P.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of the short-chain triglyceride triacetin on intestinal mucosa and metabolic substrates in rats. Lynch, J.W., Miles, J.M., Bailey, J.W. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Laparoscopic application of PGE2 to re-establish oviducal patency and fertility in infertile mares: a preliminary study. Allen, W.R., Wilsher, S., Morris, L., Crowhurst, J.S., Hillyer, M.H., Neal, H.N. Equine Vet. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Studies on the substrate specificity of a carboxyl ester hydrolase from human pancreatic juice. I. Action on carboxyl esters, glycerides and phospholipids. Lombardo, D., Fauvel, J., Guy, O. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Microencapsulation of drugs by the coacervation technique using ethylcellulose and acrylate-methacrylate copolymer as wall materials. Nimmannit, U., Suwanpatra, N. Journal of microencapsulation. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of physiological glucose levels in variable matrices of protein and triglycerides. Pan, S., Chung, H., Arnold, M.A., Small, G.W. Anal. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Further evidence for selective differences between isoalleles in Drosophila. Wills, C., Phelps, J., Ferguson, R. Genetics (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Total parenteral nutrition with short- and long-chain triglycerides: triacetin improves nitrogen balance in rats. Bailey, J.W., Barker, R.L., Karlstad, M.D. J. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of plasticizers on compatibility, mechanical properties, and adhesion strength of drug-free Eudragit E films. Lin, S.Y., Lee, C.J., Lin, Y.Y. Pharm. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Starch acetate--a novel film-forming polymer for pharmaceutical coatings. Tarvainen, M., Sutinen, R., Peltonen, S., Tiihonen, P., Paronen, P. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Determination of glucose in a biological matrix by multivariate analysis of multiple band-pass-filtered Fourier transform near-infrared interferograms. Mattu, M.J., Small, G.W., Arnold, M.A. Anal. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Lipoamidase activity in normal and mutagenized pancreatic cholesterol esterase (bile salt-stimulated lipase). Hui, D.Y., Hayakawa, K., Oizumi, J. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Halogen derivatives of m-phenylene(carbeno)nitrene: a switch in ground-state multiplicity. Enyo, T., Nicolaides, A., Tomioka, H. J. Org. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Hydrophilic microspheres from water-in-oil emulsions by the water diffusion technique. Trotta, M., Chirio, D., Cavalli, R., Peira, E. Pharm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Lipase assay in duodenal juice using a conductimetric method. Ballot, C., Favre-Bonvin, G., Wallach, J.M. Clin. Chim. Acta (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Triacetin as food additive in gummy candy and other foodstuffs on the market. Ogawa, T., Moriwaki, N., Fujii, R., Tanaka, K., Mori, E., Saitou, M., Yoshizawa, H., Sakaguchi, H. Kitasato Arch. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
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