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Chemical Compound Review

Alcohols     ethanol

Synonyms: Aethanol, Anhydrol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, Alcohol, Grain, ...
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Disease relevance of ethanol


Psychiatry related information on ethanol


High impact information on ethanol


Chemical compound and disease context of ethanol


Biological context of ethanol


Anatomical context of ethanol

  • CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol does not itself evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i in hepatocytes cultured on matrigel but perturbs receptor-operated [Ca2+]i signaling [28].
  • Letter: Alcohol and cancer of breast and thyroid [29].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption induces an increase of natural killer T cells in the liver and a high sensitivity of hepatocytes to cell-mediated lysis [30].
  • Pepto-Bismol liquid (primary active constituent, bismuth subsalicy-late) protected the gastric mucosa of rats against the formation of hemorrhagic lesions or erosions in response to cold + restraint stress, to a combination of aspirin and cold + restraint stress, and to ethyl alcohol [31].
  • Recent findings have also revealed that the NH2-terminal domain of ezrin is associated with the plasma membrane and the COOH-terminal domain with the cytoskeleton (Algrain, M., O. Turunen, A. Vaheri, D. Louvard, and M. Arpin. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120: 129-139) [32].

Associations of ethanol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ethanol

  • Because of its exclusive sensitivity to environmental alcohol, the protein was called Asr1p for Alcohol Sensitive Ring/PHD finger 1 protein [43].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-induced liver damage is associated with a generalized induction of CYP2A6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 and generation of acetaldehyde and lipid peroxidation-derived protein-aldehyde adducts [44].
  • XRCC1, XRCC3, and XPD Polymorphisms as Modifiers of the Effect of Smoking and Alcohol on Colorectal Adenoma Risk [45].
  • BACKGROUND: Alcohol (EtOH) alters the plasma and tissue content of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, an important anabolic hormone [46].
  • Mucosal damage produced by 150 mmol/L HCl and 60% ethyl alcohol did not increase COX-1 mRNA expression in any age group [47].
  • VL-17A cells overexpressing superoxide dismutase-3 and catalase, treatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or incubation of the cells with PKCdelta small interference RNAs significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced MKP-1 degradation and apoptosis [48].
  • The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in the Aldh2-/- mice clearly decreased upon ethanol feeding, in contrast to Aldh2+/+ mice, in which the ALT level was unchanged [49].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ethanol


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  2. Letter: Alcohol injection for trigeminal neuralgia. Ecker, A. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Anhydrous formulation of aluminum chloride for chronic folliculitis. Shelley, W.B., Hurley, H.J. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
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  5. Alcoholism: independent predictor of survival in patients with head and neck cancer. Deleyiannis, F.W., Thomas, D.B., Vaughan, T.L., Davis, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Fish oil fed prior to ethanol administration prevents acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Wada, S., Yamazaki, T., Kawano, Y., Miura, S., Ezaki, O. J. Hepatol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. From the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Goodwin, F.K. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Drinking and recreational boating fatalities: a population-based case-control study. Smith, G.S., Keyl, P.M., Hadley, J.A., Bartley, C.L., Foss, R.D., Tolbert, W.G., McKnight, J. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
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  12. Age of drinking onset and unintentional injury involvement after drinking. Hingson, R.W., Heeren, T., Jamanka, A., Howland, J. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Increased levels of cigarette use among college students: a cause for national concern. Wechsler, H., Rigotti, N.A., Gledhill-Hoyt, J., Lee, H. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Ethyl alcohol enhances plasminogen activator secretion by endothelial cells. Laug, W.E. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Re: Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype and risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Bouchardy, C., Coutelle, C., Ward, P.J., Dayer, P., Benhamou, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Potentiation by ethanol consumption of tracheal squamous metaplasia caused by vitamin A deficiency in rats. Mak, K.M., Leo, M.A., Lieber, C.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and alcoholism: intoxication, dependence, vulnerability, and treatment. Krystal, J.H., Staley, J., Mason, G., Petrakis, I.L., Kaufman, J., Harris, R.A., Gelernter, J., Lappalainen, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities: implication in alcoholic cirrhosis in white patients. The French Group for Research on Alcohol and Liver. Poupon, R.E., Nalpas, B., Coutelle, C., Fleury, B., Couzigou, P., Higueret, D. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Management of alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Thompson, W.L. Arch. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Intracoronary ethyl alcohol or phenol injection ablates aconitine-induced ventricular tachycardia in dogs. Inoue, H., Waller, B.F., Zipes, D.P. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Discontinuities in the topography of alcohol dehydrogenase-sodium dodecyl sulphate complexes revealed by mutagenesis and proteolysis. Ferl, R.J. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Gene transcription alterations associated with decrease of ethanol intake induced by naltrexone in the brain of Wistar rats. Oliva, J.M., Manzanares, J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. Hankinson, S.E., Willett, W.C., Manson, J.E., Hunter, D.J., Colditz, G.A., Stampfer, M.J., Longcope, C., Speizer, F.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Hepatitis C virus core protein, cytochrome P450 2E1, and alcohol produce combined mitochondrial injury and cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells. Otani, K., Korenaga, M., Beard, M.R., Li, K., Qian, T., Showalter, L.A., Singh, A.K., Wang, T., Weinman, S.A. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of alcohol on ion transport by isolated gastric and esophageal mucosa. Fromm, D., Robertson, R. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: the Hawaiian experience. Kagan, A., Yano, K., Rhoads, G.G., McGee, D.L. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of ethanol in cardiac disease. Regan, T.J., Ettinger, P.O., Haider, B., Ahmed, S.S., Oldewurtel, H.A., Lyons, M.M. Annu. Rev. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Ethanol perturbs receptor-operated cytosolic free calcium concentration signals in cultured rat hepatocytes. Zhang, B.H., Farrell, G.C. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Letter: Alcohol and cancer of breast and thyroid. Pochin, E.E. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Activated natural killer T cells induce liver injury by Fas and tumor necrosis factor-alpha during alcohol consumption. Minagawa, M., Deng, Q., Liu, Z.X., Tsukamoto, H., Dennert, G. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Protective effect of Pepto-Bismol liquid on the gastric mucosa of rats. Goldenberg, M.M., Honkomp, L.J., Burrous, S.E., Castellion, A.W. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Ezrin has a COOH-terminal actin-binding site that is conserved in the ezrin protein family. Turunen, O., Wahlström, T., Vaheri, A. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Correlation between dopamine D(2) receptors in the ventral striatum and central processing of alcohol cues and craving. Heinz, A., Siessmeier, T., Wrase, J., Hermann, D., Klein, S., Grüsser, S.M., Grüsser-Sinopoli, S.M., Flor, H., Braus, D.F., Buchholz, H.G., Gründer, G., Schreckenberger, M., Smolka, M.N., Rösch, F., Mann, K., Bartenstein, P. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Blood ethanol concentrations during and following constant-rate intravenous infusion of alcohol. Wilkinson, P.K., Sedman, A.J., Sakmar, E., Earhart, R.H., Weidler, D.J., Wagner, J.G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  35. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, selectively decreases ethanol consumption and seeking. Steensland, P., Simms, J.A., Holgate, J., Richards, J.K., Bartlett, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  36. Estrous cycle-dependent changes in basal and ethanol-induced activity of cortical dopaminergic neurons in the rat. Dazzi, L., Seu, E., Cherchi, G., Barbieri, P.P., Matzeu, A., Biggio, G. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. Mu (mu) opioid receptor regulation of ethanol-induced dopamine response in the ventral striatum: evidence of genotype specific sexual dimorphic epistasis. Job, M.O., Tang, A., Hall, F.S., Sora, I., Uhl, G.R., Bergeson, S.E., Gonzales, R.A. Biol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. Proteome and transcriptional analysis of ethanol-grown Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 reveals ADH2, a potential alcohol dehydrogenase. Chong, P.K., Burja, A.M., Radianingtyas, H., Fazeli, A., Wright, P.C. J. Proteome Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Pharmacological evidence for a motivational role of kappa-opioid systems in ethanol dependence. Walker, B.M., Koob, G.F. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  40. Combined exposure to nicotine and ethanol in adolescent mice differentially affects anxiety levels during exposure, short-term, and long-term withdrawal. Abreu-Villaça, Y., Nunes, F., do E Queiroz-Gomes, F., Manhães, A.C., Filgueiras, C.C. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  41. Ethanol-induced liver injury and changes in sulfur amino acid metabolomics in glutathione peroxidase and catalase double knockout mice. Kim, S.J., Lee, J.W., Jung, Y.S., Kwon, D.Y., Park, H.K., Ryu, C.S., Kim, S.K., Oh, G.T., Kim, Y.C. J. Hepatol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  42. Ethanol-stimulated differentiated functions of human or mouse hepatic stellate cells are mediated by connective tissue growth factor. Chen, L., Charrier, A.L., Leask, A., French, S.W., Brigstock, D.R. J. Hepatol. (2011) [Pubmed]
  43. Asr1p, a novel yeast ring/PHD finger protein, signals alcohol stress to the nucleus. Betz, C., Schlenstedt, G., Bailer, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  44. Cytochromes P450 2A6, 2E1, and 3A and production of protein-aldehyde adducts in the liver of patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. Niemelä, O., Parkkila, S., Juvonen, R.O., Viitala, K., Gelboin, H.V., Pasanen, M. J. Hepatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  45. XRCC1, XRCC3, and XPD Polymorphisms as Modifiers of the Effect of Smoking and Alcohol on Colorectal Adenoma Risk. Stern, M.C., Siegmund, K.D., Conti, D.V., Corral, R., Haile, R.W. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  46. Alcohol-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 are partially mediated by TNF. Kumar, V., Silvis, C., Nystrom, G., Deshpande, N., Vary, T.C., Frost, R.A., Lang, C.H. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  47. Developmental changes in cyclooxygenase mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa of rats. Tomomasa, T., Ogawa, T., Hikima, A., Tabata, M., Kaneko, H., Morikawa, A. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  48. Role of MAPK phosphatase-1 in sustained activation of JNK during ethanol-induced apoptosis in hepatocyte-like VL-17A cells. Venugopal, S.K., Chen, J., Zhang, Y., Clemens, D., Follenzi, A., Zern, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  49. Effects of 5-week ethanol feeding on the liver of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 knockout mice. Matsumoto, A., Kawamoto, T., Mutoh, F., Isse, T., Oyama, T., Kitagawa, K., Nakayama, K.I., Ichiba, M. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2008) [Pubmed]
  50. Parental alcohol use, problem drinking, and children's injuries. Bijur, P.E., Kurzon, M., Overpeck, M.D., Scheidt, P.C. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  51. Letter: Ethyl alcohol sniffing in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Evans-Gresch, E. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  52. Serum hormones and the alcohol-breast cancer association in postmenopausal women. Dorgan, J.F., Baer, D.J., Albert, P.S., Judd, J.T., Brown, E.D., Corle, D.K., Campbell, W.S., Hartman, T.J., Tejpar, A.A., Clevidence, B.A., Giffen, C.A., Chandler, D.W., Stanczyk, F.Z., Taylor, P.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  53. Liver transplantation and alcohol: who should get transplants? Krom, R.A. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  54. The effect of ethanol on alcohol-responsive essential tremor: a positron emission tomography study. Boecker, H., Wills, A.J., Ceballos-Baumann, A., Samuel, M., Thompson, P.D., Findley, L.J., Brooks, D.J. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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