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Gene Review

seqA  -  replication initiation regulator SeqA

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of seqA

  • Interestingly, seqA is only present in a few DamMT-specifying proteobacteria [1].
  • SeqA: a negative modulator of replication initiation in E. coli [2].
  • SeqA specifically activates the bacteriophage lambda pR promoter while revealing no significant effect on the activity of another lambda promoter, pL [3].

Psychiatry related information on seqA

  • Mutational analysis of the multimerization domain indicates that, in addition to multimerization of SeqA polypeptides, this domain contributes to the ability of SeqA to bind to a pair of hemi-sites and to its cooperative behavior [4].

High impact information on seqA


Chemical compound and disease context of seqA


Biological context of seqA


Anatomical context of seqA

  • High-affinity binding of hemimethylated oriC by Escherichia coli membranes is mediated by a multiprotein system that includes SeqA and a newly identified factor, SeqB [13].

Associations of seqA with chemical compounds

  • Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, we demonstrate that the N-terminal region of SeqA, especifically the 9th amino acid residue, glutamic acid, is required for functional SeqA-SeqA interaction [14].
  • Using gel-filtration chromotography and glycerol gradient sedimentation, we demonstrate that SeqA exists as a homotetramer [14].
  • Although the SeqA(E9K) mutant protein, containing lysine rather than glutamic acid at the 9th amino acid residue, exists as a tetramer, the mutant protein binds to hemimethylated DNA with altered binding patterns as compared with wild-type SeqA [14].
  • SeqA function seems to be distinguished from the control of DnaA protein by adenine nucleotide binding [15].
  • The mukB mutant was oversensitive to novobiocin and this susceptibility was suppressed in the mukBseqA strain, suggesting possible roles of MukB and SeqA in maintaining chromosome topology [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of seqA


  1. DomainSieve: a protein domain-based screen that led to the identification of dam-associated genes with potential link to DNA maintenance. Brézellec, P., Hoebeke, M., Hiet, M.S., Pasek, S., Ferat, J.L. Bioinformatics (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. SeqA: a negative modulator of replication initiation in E. coli. Lu, M., Campbell, J.L., Boye, E., Kleckner, N. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. SeqA-mediated stimulation of a promoter activity by facilitating functions of a transcription activator. Słomińska, M., Konopa, G., Ostrowska, J., Kedzierska, B., Wegrzyn, G., Wegrzyn, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Dimeric configuration of SeqA protein bound to a pair of hemi-methylated GATC sequences. Kang, S., Han, J.S., Kim, K.P., Yang, H.Y., Lee, K.Y., Hong, C.B., Hwang, D.S. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. E. coli SeqA protein binds oriC in two different methyl-modulated reactions appropriate to its roles in DNA replication initiation and origin sequestration. Slater, S., Wold, S., Lu, M., Boye, E., Skarstad, K., Kleckner, N. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Crystal structure of a SeqA-N filament: implications for DNA replication and chromosome organization. Guarné, A., Brendler, T., Zhao, Q., Ghirlando, R., Austin, S., Yang, W. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Excess SeqA prolongs sequestration of oriC and delays nucleoid segregation and cell division. Bach, T., Krekling, M.A., Skarstad, K. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Binding of SeqA protein to DNA requires interaction between two or more complexes bound to separate hemimethylated GATC sequences. Brendler, T., Austin, S. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli. von Freiesleben, U., Krekling, M.A., Hansen, F.G., Løbner-Olesen, A. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Escherichia coli SeqA protein affects DNA topology and inhibits open complex formation at oriC. Torheim, N.K., Skarstad, K. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Replication cycle-coordinated change of the adenine nucleotide-bound forms of DnaA protein in Escherichia coli. Kurokawa, K., Nishida, S., Emoto, A., Sekimizu, K., Katayama, T. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of SeqA and Dam in Escherichia coli gene expression: a global/microarray analysis. Løbner-Olesen, A., Marinus, M.G., Hansen, F.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. High-affinity binding of hemimethylated oriC by Escherichia coli membranes is mediated by a multiprotein system that includes SeqA and a newly identified factor, SeqB. Shakibai, N., Ishidate, K., Reshetnyak, E., Gunji, S., Kohiyama, M., Rothfield, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. SeqA protein aggregation is necessary for SeqA function. Lee, H., Kang, S., Bae, S.H., Choi, B.S., Hwang, D.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Overinitiation of chromosome replication in the Escherichia coli dnaAcos mutant depends on activation of oriC function by the dam gene product. Katayama, T., Akimitsu, N., Mizushima, T., Miki, T., Sekimizu, K. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutual suppression of mukB and seqA phenotypes might arise from their opposing influences on the Escherichia coli nucleoid structure. Weitao, T., Nordström, K., Dasgupta, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell cycle-dependent duplication and bidirectional migration of SeqA-associated DNA-protein complexes in E. coli. Hiraga, S., Ichinose, C., Niki, H., Yamazoe, M. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. The assembly and migration of SeqA-Gfp fusion in living cells of Escherichia coli. Onogi, T., Niki, H., Yamazoe, M., Hiraga, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Hda inactivation of DnaA is the predominant mechanism preventing hyperinitiation of Escherichia coli DNA replication. Camara, J.E., Breier, A.M., Brendler, T., Austin, S., Cozzarelli, N.R., Crooke, E. EMBO Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
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