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Gene Review

Cxadr  -  coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2610206D03Rik, AU016810, AW553441, CAR, Car, ...
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Disease relevance of Cxadr

  • HCAR and MCAR: the human and mouse cellular receptors for subgroup C adenoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses [1].
  • Complementary DNA clones encoding the murine homolog (mCAR) of the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) were isolated [2].
  • Based on our findings, we propose that mCAR is involved in migration and fasciculation during a restricted period as an adhesion molecule [3].
  • The Car-derived Skts1 locus was linked with papilloma multiplicity and latency by a recessive inheritance of the susceptibility allele [4].

High impact information on Cxadr

  • Surprisingly, given the extent of their infection, B cells express barely detectable levels of the murine coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (mCAR), suggesting that another means of cell entry may be used [5].
  • Fiber binds with high affinity to the cell surface coxsackievirus-and-adenovirus receptor (CAR), and penton base facilitates viral internalization by binding alphav integrins through an RGD motif [6].
  • In addition, in the livers of Car-/- mice, the YFP-tagged S202D mutant did not translocate into the nucleus after PB treatment [7].
  • Implantation of cells expressing human or mouse CFC2, or chick CFC on the right side of Hensen's node randomized heart looping without affecting expression of genes involved in left-right axis formation, including SnR, Nodal, Car, or Pitx2 [8].
  • Nonpermissive CHO cells transfected with mCAR cDNA became susceptible to infection by coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 and showed increased susceptibility to adenovirus-mediated gene transfer [2].

Biological context of Cxadr

  • In order to determine whether or not mCAR is involved in cell adhesion, aggregation assays were carried out [9].
  • The mCAR gene is situated on the distal portion of murine chromosome 16, and is composed of at least eight exons, with intron-exon boundaries similar to those reported for the human CAR gene [10].
  • RESULTS: MCAR has a high level of amino acid sequence identity with orthologous sequences reported for other species except the C-terminal region, which is highly conserved between mouse and rat but divergent in other species [11].

Anatomical context of Cxadr

  • In primary neurons from the hippocampi of mouse embryos the expression of mCAR was observed throughout the cells including those in growth cones on immunohistochemistry [9].
  • These observations demonstrate that mCAR was expressed characteristically in the immature neuroepithelium including progenitor cells or radial cells derived from the neural tube and in immature cells in a selected germinal zone of the mature brain [3].
  • We found that mCAR occurred in a few proliferating cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) over P21 [3].
  • We observed the expression of mCAR in embryos to adult tissues by means of immunohistochemical analysis with a peptide antibody. mCAR expression was first detected in the embryonic ectoderm in the uterus on embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCAR is expressed in retinal cone photoreceptors and the pineal gland [11].

Associations of Cxadr with chemical compounds

  • C6 cells transfected with mCAR cDNA aggregated homophilically, which was inhibited by specific antibodies against the extracellular domain of mCAR [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cxadr

  • Western and Northern blot analyses demonstrated the abundant expression of mCAR in the mouse brain, the highest level being observed in the newborn mouse brain, and its expression was detected in embryos as early as at 10 [9].
  • On in situ hybridization, mCAR mRNA expression was observed throughout the newborn mouse brain [9].
  • RT-PCR analysis of the mCAR RNA 5'-terminus suggests that transcription may begin 141-161 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translational start site [10].


  1. HCAR and MCAR: the human and mouse cellular receptors for subgroup C adenoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses. Tomko, R.P., Xu, R., Philipson, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The murine CAR homolog is a receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses. Bergelson, J.M., Krithivas, A., Celi, L., Droguett, G., Horwitz, M.S., Wickham, T., Crowell, R.L., Finberg, R.W. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental distribution of coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor localized in the nervous system. Hotta, Y., Honda, T., Naito, M., Kuwano, R. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of intercross outbred mice and single nucleotide polymorphisms to map skin cancer modifier loci. Peissel, B., Zaffaroni, D., Pazzaglia, S., Manenti, G., Zanesi, N., Zedda, I., Rebessi, S., Covelli, V., Dragani, T.A., Saran, A. Mamm. Genome (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of B lymphocytes in coxsackievirus B3 infection. Mena, I., Perry, C.M., Harkins, S., Rodriguez, F., Gebhard, J., Whitton, J.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Fiber and penton base capsid modifications yield diminished adenovirus type 5 transduction and proinflammatory gene expression with retention of antigen-specific humoral immunity. Schoggins, J.W., Falck-Pedersen, E. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Serine 202 regulates the nuclear translocation of constitutive active/androstane receptor. Hosseinpour, F., Moore, R., Negishi, M., Sueyoshi, T. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Chick CFC controls Lefty1 expression in the embryonic midline and nodal expression in the lateral plate. Schlange, T., Schnipkoweit, I., Andrée, B., Ebert, A., Zile, M.H., Arnold, H.H., Brand, T. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor protein as a cell adhesion molecule in the developing mouse brain. Honda, T., Saitoh, H., Masuko, M., Katagiri-Abe, T., Tominaga, K., Kozakai, I., Kobayashi, K., Kumanishi, T., Watanabe, Y.G., Odani, S., Kuwano, R. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure and chromosomal localization of the murine coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor gene. Chen, J.W., Ghosh, R., Finberg, R.W., Bergelson, J.M. DNA Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Mouse cone arrestin expression pattern: light induced translocation in cone photoreceptors. Zhu, X., Li, A., Brown, B., Weiss, E.R., Osawa, S., Craft, C.M. Mol. Vis. (2002) [Pubmed]
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