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MeSH Review

Emigration and Immigration

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Disease relevance of Emigration and Immigration


High impact information on Emigration and Immigration

  • In vertebrates, insects and nematodes, members of the DCC subfamily of the immunoglobulin superfamily have been implicated as receptors that are involved in migration towards netrin sources [6].
  • When these monocyte-derived DCs exit skin to emigrate to LNs, they use not only CCR7 but also CCR8, which was not previously recognized to participate in migration to LNs [7].
  • Furthermore, we found that in reeler mutant mice, neuronal precursors accumulated in the olfactory bulb and remained in clusters, indicating that they did not change from tangential chain-migration to radial individual migration [8].
  • LFA-1 has a key role in migration to peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs), and influences migration into other LNs [9].
  • The alphaEbeta7 integrin appeared to play no role in migration during a primary CD8 T cell immune response in vivo [10].

Biological context of Emigration and Immigration


Anatomical context of Emigration and Immigration

  • These three bands were identical in migration in SDS PAGE to that of the M protein present in freshly prepared crude periplasm [16].
  • The role of polysialic acid in migration of olfactory bulb interneuron precursors in the subventricular zone [17].
  • To address this issue, we investigated the role of PAK in migration of microvascular endothelial cells [18].
  • We explored the hypothesis that the chemotactic migration of carcinoma cells that assemble hemidesmosomes involves the activation of a signaling pathway that releases the alpha6beta4 integrin from these stable adhesion complexes and promotes its association with F-actin in cell protrusions enabling it to function in migration [19].
  • The properties of the carboxy-terminal domain of H1 and the possible involvement of the amino acids lysine, proline and alanine in migration are discussed and compared with those of a domain that specifies migration of nucleoplasmin into the oocyte nucleus [20].

Associations of Emigration and Immigration with chemical compounds

  • Constitutively increased c-src kinase activity reconstituted the increases in migration and u-PA observed with angiotensin system interruption [21].
  • Application of K+ channel blockers (1 and 5 mmol/liter Ba2+, 5 mmol/liter tetraethylammonium, 100 mumol/liter 4-aminopyridine, 5 nmol/liter charybdotoxin) caused marked inhibition of migration, pointing to the importance of K+ channels in migration [22].
  • Cells expressing Y397F FAK, which cannot be phosphorylated at a key tyrosine site, showed similar defects in migration pattern and force-induced reorientation as did FAK-null cells [23].
  • Digestion with neuraminidase resulted in a shift in migration of the two TGF-beta 1 precursor bands, which suggests that they contain sialic acid residues [24].
  • U87 cells treated with S1P showed a significant increase in migration, whereas U118 and U138 cell lines were strongly inhibited [25].

Gene context of Emigration and Immigration

  • Cells expressing 18-kD bFGF transfected with a cDNA encoding FGF receptor-2 lacking the COOH-terminal domain (dominant negative bFGF receptor) exhibited a flat morphology and decreases in migration and saturation density [26].
  • CXCR4 blockade abrogates their pathology-directed chain migration, a developmentally relevant mode of tangential migration that, if recapitulated, could explain homing along nonstereotypical paths [27].
  • In a double-chamber transmigration assay, CD40 activation of MM cells induced a 3-fold (RPMI 8226) and a 5-fold (SV) increase in migration under restrictive, but not permissive, conditions [28].
  • The reduction in migration due to p85alpha deficiency in BMMs is associated with reduced adhesion and directed migration on fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [29].
  • We find that dominant negative (N17) versions of Rac and Cdc42 cause a very similar defect in migration as loss of integrins, while those of Rho and Ras have no effect [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Emigration and Immigration


  1. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7. Yoshida, R., Imai, T., Hieshima, K., Kusuda, J., Baba, M., Kitaura, M., Nishimura, M., Kakizaki, M., Nomiyama, H., Yoshie, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Erythropoietin promotes MCF-7 breast cancer cell migration by an ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway and is primarily responsible for the increase in migration observed in hypoxia. Lester, R.D., Jo, M., Campana, W.M., Gonias, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The E7 proteins of the nononcogenic human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) and of the oncogenic HPV-16 differ in retinoblastoma protein binding and other properties. Gage, J.R., Meyers, C., Wettstein, F.O. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Dendritic cells generated from patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer are not impaired in migration and T-cell stimulation. Waeckerle-Men, Y., Allmen, E.U., von Moos, R., Classon, B.J., Scandella, E., Schmid, H.P., Ludewig, B., Groettrup, M., Gillessen, S. Prostate (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective passage through the uterotubal junction of sperm from a mixed population produced by chimeras of calmegin-knockout and wild-type male mice. Nakanishi, T., Isotani, A., Yamaguchi, R., Ikawa, M., Baba, T., Suarez, S.S., Okabe, M. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Vertebrate homologues of C. elegans UNC-5 are candidate netrin receptors. Leonardo, E.D., Hinck, L., Masu, M., Keino-Masu, K., Ackerman, S.L., Tessier-Lavigne, M. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of CCR8 and other chemokine pathways in the migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells to lymph nodes. Qu, C., Edwards, E.W., Tacke, F., Angeli, V., Llodrá, J., Sanchez-Schmitz, G., Garin, A., Haque, N.S., Peters, W., van Rooijen, N., Sanchez-Torres, C., Bromberg, J., Charo, I.F., Jung, S., Lira, S.A., Randolph, G.J. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Reelin is a detachment signal in tangential chain-migration during postnatal neurogenesis. Hack, I., Bancila, M., Loulier, K., Carroll, P., Cremer, H. Nat. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Lymphocyte migration in lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1-deficient mice. Berlin-Rufenach, C., Otto, F., Mathies, M., Westermann, J., Owen, M.J., Hamann, A., Hogg, N. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of beta7 integrins in CD8 T cell trafficking during an antiviral immune response. Lefrançois, L., Parker, C.M., Olson, S., Muller, W., Wagner, N., Schön, M.P., Puddington, L. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. A RHO GTPase-mediated pathway is required during P cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Spencer, A.G., Orita, S., Malone, C.J., Han, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Presenilin 1 in migration and morphogenesis in the central nervous system. Louvi, A., Sisodia, S.S., Grove, E.A. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Defective Gi protein coupling in two formyl peptide receptor mutants associated with localized juvenile periodontitis. Seifert, R., Wenzel-Seifert, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Connexin43 phosphorylation at S368 is acute during S and G2/M and in response to protein kinase C activation. Solan, J.L., Fry, M.D., TenBroek, E.M., Lampe, P.D. J. Cell. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The WD protein Rack1 mediates protein kinase C and integrin-dependent cell migration. Buensuceso, C.S., Woodside, D., Huff, J.L., Plopper, G.E., O'Toole, T.E. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Streptococcal M6 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Localization, purification, and comparison with streptococcal-derived M protein. Fischetti, V.A., Jones, K.F., Manjula, B.N., Scott, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. The role of polysialic acid in migration of olfactory bulb interneuron precursors in the subventricular zone. Hu, H., Tomasiewicz, H., Magnuson, T., Rutishauser, U. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. A role for p21-activated kinase in endothelial cell migration. Kiosses, W.B., Daniels, R.H., Otey, C., Bokoch, G.M., Schwartz, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Protein kinase C-dependent mobilization of the alpha6beta4 integrin from hemidesmosomes and its association with actin-rich cell protrusions drive the chemotactic migration of carcinoma cells. Rabinovitz, I., Toker, A., Mercurio, A.M. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Accumulation of the isolated carboxy-terminal domain of histone H1 in the Xenopus oocyte nucleus. Dingwall, C., Allan, J. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Autocrine angiotensin system regulation of bovine aortic endothelial cell migration and plasminogen activator involves modulation of proto-oncogene pp60c-src expression. Bell, L., Luthringer, D.J., Madri, J.A., Warren, S.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Oscillating activity of a Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channel. A prerequisite for migration of transformed Madin-Darby canine kidney focus cells. Schwab, A., Wojnowski, L., Gabriel, K., Oberleithner, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in mechanosensing during fibroblast migration. Wang, H.B., Dembo, M., Hanks, S.K., Wang, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Recombinant type 1 transforming growth factor beta precursor produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells is glycosylated and phosphorylated. Brunner, A.M., Gentry, L.E., Cooper, J.A., Purchio, A.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. The G protein-coupled receptor S1P2 regulates Rho/Rho kinase pathway to inhibit tumor cell migration. Lepley, D., Paik, J.H., Hla, T., Ferrer, F. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Differential modulation of cell phenotype by different molecular weight forms of basic fibroblast growth factor: possible intracellular signaling by the high molecular weight forms. Bikfalvi, A., Klein, S., Pintucci, G., Quarto, N., Mignatti, P., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Directed migration of neural stem cells to sites of CNS injury by the stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha/CXC chemokine receptor 4 pathway. Imitola, J., Raddassi, K., Park, K.I., Mueller, F.J., Nieto, M., Teng, Y.D., Frenkel, D., Li, J., Sidman, R.L., Walsh, C.A., Snyder, E.Y., Khoury, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. CD40 activation induces p53-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in human multiple myeloma cells. Tai, Y.T., Podar, K., Gupta, D., Lin, B., Young, G., Akiyama, M., Anderson, K.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. p85alpha subunit of class IA PI-3 kinase is crucial for macrophage growth and migration. Munugalavadla, V., Borneo, J., Ingram, D.A., Kapur, R. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Migration of the Drosophila primordial midgut cells requires coordination of diverse PS integrin functions. Martin-Bermudo, M.D., Alvarez-Garcia, I., Brown, N.H. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Adrenomedullin as a novel antimigration factor of vascular smooth muscle cells. Horio, T., Kohno, M., Kano, H., Ikeda, M., Yasunari, K., Yokokawa, K., Minami, M., Takeda, T. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. L-selectin is not required for T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes. Friedline, R.H., Wong, C.P., Steeber, D.A., Tedder, T.F., Tisch, R. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Activating and inhibitory Ly49 receptors modulate NK cell chemotaxis to CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 10 and CXCL12. Inngjerdingen, M., Rolstad, B., Ryan, J.C. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. The effects of incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into mammalian DNA on the migration patterns of DNA fragments subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after X irradiation or cutting with a restriction enzyme. Latz, D.L., Trinh, M.M., Thompson, L.L., Gardiner, K., Zhu, Y., Bodell, W.J., Dewey, W.C. Radiat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Cerebrovascular mortality in patients with pituitary adenoma. Brada, M., Ashley, S., Ford, D., Traish, D., Burchell, L., Rajan, B. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2002) [Pubmed]
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