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MeSH Review

Cones (Retina)

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Disease relevance of Cones (Retina)


Psychiatry related information on Cones (Retina)


High impact information on Cones (Retina)


Biological context of Cones (Retina)


Anatomical context of Cones (Retina)


Associations of Cones (Retina) with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cones (Retina)

  • Cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are thought to be tetrameric assemblies of CNGB3 (B3) and CNGA3 (A3) subunits [25].
  • Previously published work showed that both proteins, RPGR and RPGRIP1, are present in the ciliary structure that connects the inner and outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors [26].
  • Patients with RPGRIP1 mutations have a degeneration of both rod and cone photoreceptors, and, early in life, they experience a severe loss of central acuity, which leads to nystagmus [26].
  • AIPL1 was not detected in the cone photoreceptors of peripheral or central human retina [27].
  • These studies suggest a potential role for direct binding and unbinding of Ca2+-CaM to human CNGB3 during cone photoreceptor adaptation and recovery [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cones (Retina)


  1. Mutations in the human retinal degeneration slow gene in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Kajiwara, K., Hahn, L.B., Mukai, S., Travis, G.H., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific. Reese, B.E., Harvey, A.R., Tan, S.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutations in the cone photoreceptor G-protein alpha-subunit gene GNAT2 in patients with achromatopsia. Kohl, S., Baumann, B., Rosenberg, T., Kellner, U., Lorenz, B., Vadalà, M., Jacobson, S.G., Wissinger, B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Linkage analysis of X-linked cone-rod dystrophy: localization to Xp11.4 and definition of a locus distinct from RP2 and RP3. Seymour, A.B., Dash-Modi, A., O'Connell, J.R., Shaffer-Gordon, M., Mah, T.S., Stefko, S.T., Nagaraja, R., Brown, J., Kimura, A.E., Ferrell, R.E., Gorin, M.B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Non-rod, non-cone photoreception in rodents and teleost fish. Foster, R.G., Hankins, M., Lucas, R.J., Jenkins, A., Muñoz, M., Thompson, S., Appleford, J.M., Bellingham, J. Novartis Found. Symp. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Kaupp, U.B., Seifert, R. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. A thyroid hormone receptor that is required for the development of green cone photoreceptors. Ng, L., Hurley, J.B., Dierks, B., Srinivas, M., Saltó, C., Vennström, B., Reh, T.A., Forrest, D. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. ABCR expression in foveal cone photoreceptors and its role in Stargardt macular dystrophy. Molday, L.L., Rabin, A.R., Molday, R.S. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Total colourblindness is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel. Kohl, S., Marx, T., Giddings, I., Jägle, H., Jacobson, S.G., Apfelstedt-Sylla, E., Zrenner, E., Sharpe, L.T., Wissinger, B. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Calcium and calcium-dependent chloride currents generate action potentials in solitary cone photoreceptors. Maricq, A.V., Korenbrot, J.I. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. L-aspartate: evidence for a role in cone photoreceptor synaptic transmission in the carp retina. Wu, S.M., Dowling, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Mutations in the CNGB3 gene encoding the beta-subunit of the cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel are responsible for achromatopsia (ACHM3) linked to chromosome 8q21. Kohl, S., Baumann, B., Broghammer, M., Jägle, H., Sieving, P., Kellner, U., Spegal, R., Anastasi, M., Zrenner, E., Sharpe, L.T., Wissinger, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple death pathways in retina-derived 661W cells following growth factor deprivation: crosstalk between caspases and calpains. Gómez-Vicente, V., Donovan, M., Cotter, T.G. Cell Death Differ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Cone arrestin identified by targeting expression of a functional family. Craft, C.M., Whitmore, D.H., Wiechmann, A.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Exocytosed protons feedback to suppress the Ca2+ current in mammalian cone photoreceptors. DeVries, S.H. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuron-specific enolase: a neuronal survival factor in the retinal extracellular matrix? Li, A., Lane, W.S., Johnson, L.V., Chader, G.J., Tombran-Tink, J. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Distinct functions of photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor, thyroid hormone receptor beta2 and CRX in one photoreceptor development. Yanagi, Y., Takezawa, S., Kato, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Ligand sensitivity of the 2 subunit from the bovine cone cGMP-gated channel is modulated by protein kinase C but not by calmodulin. Müller, F., Vantler, M., Weitz, D., Eismann, E., Zoche, M., Koch, K.W., Kaupp, U.B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Cell birthdays and rate of differentiation of ganglion and horizontal cells of the developing cat's retina. Zimmerman, R.P., Polley, E.H., Fortney, R.L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Kainate receptors mediate synaptic transmission between cones and 'Off' bipolar cells in a mammalian retina. DeVries, S.H., Schwartz, E.A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Cyclic GMP increases photocurrent and light sensitivity of retinal cones. Cobbs, W.H., Barkdoll, A.E., Pugh, E.N. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. The cyclic nucleotide-gated channels of vertebrate photoreceptors and olfactory epithelium. Kaupp, U.B. Trends Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Like night and day: rods and cones have different pigment regeneration pathways. Arshavsky, V. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Circadian clock functions localized in xenopus retinal photoreceptors. Cahill, G.M., Besharse, J.C. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Subunit configuration of heteromeric cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Peng, C., Rich, E.D., Varnum, M.D. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Null RPGRIP1 alleles in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis. Dryja, T.P., Adams, S.M., Grimsby, J.L., McGee, T.L., Hong, D.H., Li, T., Andréasson, S., Berson, E.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The Leber congenital amaurosis gene product AIPL1 is localized exclusively in rod photoreceptors of the adult human retina. van der Spuy, J., Chapple, J.P., Clark, B.J., Luthert, P.J., Sethi, C.S., Cheetham, M.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Functionally important calmodulin-binding sites in both NH2- and COOH-terminal regions of the cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated channel CNGB3 subunit. Peng, C., Rich, E.D., Thor, C.A., Varnum, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of a GTP-binding protein alpha subunit that lacks an apparent ADP-ribosylation site for pertussis toxin. Fong, H.K., Yoshimoto, K.K., Eversole-Cire, P., Simon, M.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. pH changes in the invaginating synaptic cleft mediate feedback from horizontal cells to cone photoreceptors by modulating Ca2+ channels. Hirasawa, H., Kaneko, A. J. Gen. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Nonsynaptic localization of the excitatory amino acid transporter 4 in photoreceptors. Pignataro, L., Sitaramayya, A., Finnemann, S.C., Sarthy, V.P. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Glycine receptors in a population of adult mammalian cones. Balse, E., Tessier, L.H., Forster, V., Roux, M.J., Sahel, J.A., Picaud, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
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