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Gene Review

UL21  -  interacts with microtubules

Bovine herpesvirus 1

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Disease relevance of UL21

  • The BHV-1 ORFs were arranged colinearly with the prototype sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 in the range of the UL21 to UL4 genes [1].
  • Virus-induced proteins in pseudorabies-infected cells. II. Proteins of the virion and nucleocapsid [2].
  • The data support a model where virion subassemblies but not complete virions are transported in the axon [3].
  • Our results provide new insight into the process of virion assembly and exit from neurons that leads to directional spread of herpesviruses in the nervous system [3].
  • Identification of the bovine herpesvirus 1 circ protein, a myristylated and virion-associated polypeptide which is not essential for virus replication in cell culture [4].

High impact information on UL21


Biological context of UL21


Anatomical context of UL21


Associations of UL21 with chemical compounds

  • Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein H (gH) is a structural component of the virion which forms a complex with glycoprotein gL [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of UL21

  • Using a rabbit antiserum raised against a synthetic oligopeptide representing the carboxy terminus of the predicted circ polypeptide for Western blot (immunoblot) analyses and immunofluorescence assays, we identified a 34-kDa virion-associated protein which accumulated in the cytoplasm of infected cells [4].
  • This fixative stabilized nucleic acids, allowing acetone dehydration and plastic embedding without collapse of nucleic acid to the centre of the virion [13].
  • Proteins and glycoproteins of virion of VZV were analyzed by immunoprecipitation with antisera against partially purified virion of VZV [14].


  1. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 30-kb region of the bovine herpesvirus 1 genome which exhibits a colinear gene arrangement with the UL21 to UL4 genes of herpes simplex virus. Vlcek, C., Benes, V., Lu, Z., Kutish, G.F., Paces, V., Rock, D., Letchworth, G.J., Schwyzer, M. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Virus-induced proteins in pseudorabies-infected cells. II. Proteins of the virion and nucleocapsid. Stevely, W.S. J. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. A conserved alpha-herpesvirus protein necessary for axonal localization of viral membrane proteins. Tomishima, M.J., Enquist, L.W. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of the bovine herpesvirus 1 circ protein, a myristylated and virion-associated polypeptide which is not essential for virus replication in cell culture. Fraefel, C., Ackermann, M., Schwyzer, M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation of bovine herpesvirus 1 tegument protein VP22 correlates with the incorporation of VP22 into virions. Ren, X., Harms, J.S., Splitter, G.A. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B does not productively interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in a pseudorabies virion background. Klupp, B.G., Karger, A., Mettenleiter, T.C. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Protein and DNA elements involved in transactivation of the promoter of the bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1 IE-1 transcription unit by the BHV alpha gene trans-inducing factor. Misra, V., Bratanich, A.C., Carpenter, D., O'Hare, P. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Proteins Specified by bovine herpesvirus 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus). Misra, V., Blumenthal, R.M., Babiuk, L.A. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. The structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric DNA: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes. Schynts, F., McVoy, M.A., Meurens, F., Detry, B., Epstein, A.L., Thiry, E. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A vhs-like activity of bovine herpesvirus-1. Hinkley, S., Ambagala, A.P., Jones, C.J., Srikumaran, S. Arch. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Occurrence of bovine herpesvirus-1 DNA in nucleosomes and chromatin of bovine herpesvirus-1-infected cells: identification of a virion-associated protein in chromatin of infected cells. Seal, B.S., Martinez, J.D., Hall, M.R., St Jeor, S.C. Arch. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein H is essential for penetration and propagation in cell culture. Meyer, G., Hanon, E., Georlette, D., Pastoret, P.P., Thiry, E. J. Gen. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromic-acid formaldehyde fixation of nucleic acids of bacteriophage phi6 and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Langenberg, W.G., Sharpee, R.L. J. Gen. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Studies on the polypeptides of varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus. II. Syntheses of viral polypeptides in infected cells. Asano, Y., Takahashi, M. Biken journal. (1980) [Pubmed]
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