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Gene Review

THM  -  thymoma

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of THM


Psychiatry related information on THM


High impact information on THM


Chemical compound and disease context of THM


Biological context of THM

  • Heritable lympho-epithelial thymoma resulting from a transgene insertional mutation [15].
  • We studied a family bearing the constitutional chromosome translocation t(14;20)(q24;p12), 3 of whose members had a thymoma [1].
  • A thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) reaction is described for the determination of delta(13)C fatty acid values using trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) [16].
  • A collection of tannins extracted from various plant species was subjected to thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) using tetramethylammonium hydroxide [17].
  • Statistical analyses of the THM products and 13C NMR data of the tannins showed good correlations between the B ring hydroxylation and the di- and trimethoxybenzenes observed [17].

Anatomical context of THM

  • Thymoma is the most common tumor of the anterior-superior mediastinum [15].
  • Compared with controls, however, microscopic analyses revealed accelerated damage of cellular structure in the aortic root in THM fed with the atherogenic diet [18].
  • This work supports the hypothesis that the local reflex response and the baroreceptor outflow entrain the THM frequency [19].
  • Ribbond THM used under composite restorations increased dentin bond strength in cavities with a high c-factor (p < 0.05) [20].
  • THM levels in drinking water samples from the same communities were compared but analysis of variance computations showed no significant correlation between the water and breast milk [21].

Associations of THM with chemical compounds

  • Tannins from species that contained both CT and hydrolyzable tannin (HT) produced mainly permethylated gallic acid moieties upon THM, and the products derived from CTs were less abundant [17].
  • We report on the synthesis of a series of polycationic telomers, polycationic diblock and random polyethylene glycol (PEG)-grafted (co)telomers, and polycationic random tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (THM) cotelomers, and on their in vitro gene transfer capability [22].
  • Lipoprotein profiles of cholesterol in THM were fundamentally similar to those in C57BL/6J on either the atherogenic or normal diet [18].
  • The THMFP of HiF, normalized on a DOC basis, was found to be comparable to that of AHS (0.176 microM THM mg C(-1) vs. 0.195 microM THM mg C(-1), respectively) [23].
  • The results of this investigation reveal that enhanced coagulation with p-DADMAC was founded to be very effective for removing high-molecular-weight THM precursors, i.e., humic acid and tannic acid, and markedly reduced the alum dosages required for turbidity removal [24].

Physical interactions of THM

  • The present study characterizes in vivo and in vitro, functional SS-binding sites in a human thymoma [25].
  • By using immunofluorescence microscopy on stretched single myofibrils, we now report that approximately 40% of the sera from 18 MG/thymoma patients and 8 late-onset MG patients with thymus atrophy contain antibodies that bind to a more central I-band titin region [26].

Enzymatic interactions of THM

  • Cytologic findings were retrospectively analyzed in the Papanicolaou-stained stamp smears obtained from the cut surfaces of thymoma specimens [27].

Regulatory relationships of THM

  • cDNA clones which seem to represent the alleles of HLA-A and -B expressed by the thymoma MOLT-4 have been isolated and used as locus-specific probes to measure the corresponding mRNA levels in MOLT-4 and other human thymocyte lines, and the effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha and -gamma on these levels [28].
  • Cells of the EL4-6.1 thymoma express large numbers (approximately 20,000 per cell) of IL-1-R that have a Kd of approximately 300 pM for IL-1 [29].
  • However, it has been shown that there is an impairment of CD4+ T cell development in thymoma and that IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DR expression on cultured thymic epithelial cells (TEC) derived from thymoma is decreased when compared with the normal thymus [30].
  • In contrast to CD4+ single-positive cells, most of the CD8+ single-positive cells in the thymoma as well as in the normal thymus expressed CD69 and a high level of CD3 [31].
  • Six thymoma specimens that showed beta gene rearrangement expressed both CD4 and CD8 [32].

Other interactions of THM

  • Over a 12-month period, various chemical (THM, HAA, UV254, DOC, TOC, metals, nitrate, nitrites) and physical measurements (lamp voltage, current, sensor measurements) were monitored to define their impact (if any) on the operation of the reactor [33].
  • A continuous cell line (YT cells) with inducible receptor for T cell growth factor (TCGF)/interleukin 2 (IL 2) was established from a 15-yr-old boy with acute lymphoblastic lymphoma and thymoma [34].
  • In addition, the status of ER alpha immunoreactivity was significantly associated with a better clinical outcome in thymoma patients [35].
  • BACKGROUND: Abnormality of the V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1 (AKT1) may be a predisposing factor in schizophrenia [36].
  • A polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of exon 3 of CDKN2 was detected in 5 cases of thymoma [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of THM

  • Therefore, THM should be a useful animal model for the study on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis [18].
  • Remarkably, the surface area of atherosclerotic lesion in THM was shown by quantitative image analysis to be 4 times larger than that in C57BL/6J on the same atherogenic diet [18].
  • Epidemiological studies using total THM levels should be taking this into account in the interpretation of their results, and regulatory authorities when setting water guidelines [38].
  • 2. Single oral administration of Val-Tyr (0.1 mg/g) to 11-week-old THM resulted in a prolonged reduction of blood pressure for up to 9 h [39].
  • In our study, we attempted to jointly consider THM concentration data collected from drinking waters and carcinogenic risk assessment derived from mathematical models commonly used in this field (multi-stage models for laboratory animal experimentation data, and 'unit risk' derived from the relative risk in the case of epidemiological data) [40].


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  2. Associations of cancer mortality with halomethanes in drinking water. Cantor, K.P., Hoover, R., Mason, T.J., McCabe, L.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. The Tsukuba hypertensive mouse (transgenic mouse carrying human genes for both renin and angiotensinogen) as a model of human malignant hypertension: development of lesions and morphometric analysis. Shimokama, T., Haraoka, S., Horiguchi, H., Sugiyama, F., Murakami, K., Watanabe, T. Virchows Arch. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  5. Successful treatment of a patient with a thymoma and pure red-cell aplasia with octreotide and prednisone. Palmieri, G., Lastoria, S., Colao, A., Vergara, E., Varrella, P., Biondi, E., Selleri, C., Catalano, L., Lombardi, G., Bianco, A.R., Salvatore, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Thymoma-induced syncope. Ben-Chetrit, E., Ben-Yehuda, A., Ackerman, Z., Burstein, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes. Newsom-Davis, J., Willcox, N., Calder, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Peptide sequences of T-cell receptor delta and gamma chains are identical to predicted X and gamma proteins. Born, W., Miles, C., White, J., O'Brien, R., Freed, J.H., Marrack, P., Kappler, J., Kubo, R.T. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Letter: Cysteine and survival of transplanted thymoma. Connors, T.A., Jones, M. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. A pathogenetic role for the thymoma in myasthenia gravis. Autosensitization of IL-4- producing T cell clones recognizing extracellular acetylcholine receptor epitopes presented by minority class II isotypes. Nagvekar, N., Moody, A.M., Moss, P., Roxanis, I., Curnow, J., Beeson, D., Pantic, N., Newsom-Davis, J., Vincent, A., Willcox, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Cisplatin plus doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide in metastatic or recurrent thymoma: final results of an intergroup trial. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Southwest Oncology Group, and Southeastern Cancer Study Group. Loehrer, P.J., Kim, K., Aisner, S.C., Livingston, R., Einhorn, L.H., Johnson, D., Blum, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Octreotide alone or with prednisone in patients with advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II Trial. Loehrer, P.J., Wang, W., Johnson, D.H., Aisner, S.C., Ettinger, D.S. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Antitumor effect of 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine conjugates against a murine thymoma and colon carcinoma xenografts. Krauer, K.G., McKenzie, I.F., Pietersz, G.A. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunological associations of acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). Report of five cases and literature review. Newsom-Davis, J., Mills, K.R. Brain (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Heritable lympho-epithelial thymoma resulting from a transgene insertional mutation. Nakajima, H., Nakajima, H.O., Soonpaa, M.H., Jing, S., Field, L.J. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of soil mesofauna using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation for ecological investigations. Evans, C.J., Evershed, R.P., Black, H.I., Ineson, P. Anal. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation of purified tannins from plants. Nierop, K.G., Preston, C.M., Kaal, J. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Acceleration of atherosclerotic lesions in transgenic mice with hypertension by the activated renin-angiotensin system. Sugiyama, F., Haraoka, S., Watanabe, T., Shiota, N., Taniguchi, K., Ueno, Y., Tanimoto, K., Murakami, K., Fukamizu, A., Yagami, K. Lab. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Periodic posture stimulation of the baroreceptors and the local vasomotor reflexes. Nasimi, S.G., Harness, J.B., Marjanović, D.Z., Knight, T., Mearns, A.J. Journal of biomedical engineering. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of c-factor and flowable resin or fiber use at the interface on microtensile bond strength to dentin. Belli, S., Dönmez, N., Eskitaşcioğlu, G. The journal of adhesive dentistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Volatile synthetic organics in mothers' milk. Mandhare, K.S., Field, J.E., DeLeon, I.R., Castille, W.J. The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Polycationic diblock and random polyethylene glycol- or tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-grafted (co)telomers for gene transfer: synthesis and evaluation of their in vitro transfection efficiency. Le Bon, B., Van Craynest, N., Boussif, O., Vierling, P. Bioconjug. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Trihalomethane formation potential of dissolved organic matter in a shallow eutrophic lake. Imai, A., Matsushige, K., Nagai, T. Water Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of polyelectrolytes on reduction of model compounds via coagulation. Chang, E.E., Chiang, P.C., Tang, W.Y., Chao, S.H., Hsing, H.J. Chemosphere (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Somatostatin receptor subtypes in human thymoma and inhibition of cell proliferation by octreotide in vitro. Ferone, D., van Hagen, M.P., Kwekkeboom, D.J., van Koetsveld, P.M., Mooy, D.M., Lichtenauer-Kaligis, E., Schönbrunn, A., Colao, A., Lamberts, S.W., Hofland, L.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Striational autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis patients recognize I-band titin epitopes. Lübke, E., Freiburg, A., Skeie, G.O., Kolmerer, B., Labeit, S., Aarli, J.A., Gilhus, N.E., Wollmann, R., Wussling, M., Rüegg, J.C., Linke, W.A. J. Neuroimmunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Cytomorphologic features characteristic of tumor stages of thymomas. Baba, M., Nomoto, Y., Iyoda, A., Saito, H., Hiroshima, K., Shibuya, K., Haga, Y., Hoshino, H., Iizasa, T., Horiuchi, F., Fujisawa, T. Oncol. Rep. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential expression and interferon response of HLA class I genes in thymocyte lines and response variants. Girdlestone, J., Milstein, C. Eur. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Binding and internalization of interleukin 1 by T cells. Direct evidence for high- and low-affinity classes of interleukin 1 receptor. Lowenthal, J.W., MacDonald, H.R. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Altered T cell development in human thymoma is related to impairment of MHC class II transactivator expression induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Kadota, Y., Okumura, M., Miyoshi, S., Kitagawa-Sakakida, S., Inoue, M., Shiono, H., Maeda, Y., Kinoshita, T., Shirakura, R., Matsuda, H. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Accumulation of immature CD3-CD4+CD8- single-positive cells that lack CD69 in epithelial cell tumors of the human thymus. Takeuchi, Y., Fujii, Y., Okumura, M., Inada, K., Nakahara, K., Matsuda, H. Cell. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Rearrangement of T-cell receptor beta and gamma genes in thymoma. Nakajima, J., Matsumoto, J., Takeuchi, E., Fukami, T., Takamoto, S. Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Assessing UV reactor performance for treatment of finished water. Bukhari, Z., LeChevallier, M. Water Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. TCGF (IL 2)-receptor inducing factor(s). I. Regulation of IL 2 receptor on a natural killer-like cell line (YT cells). Yodoi, J., Teshigawara, K., Nikaido, T., Fukui, K., Noma, T., Honjo, T., Takigawa, M., Sasaki, M., Minato, N., Tsudo, M. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Sex steroid hormone receptors in human thymoma. Ishibashi, H., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, S., Moriya, T., Kaneko, C., Takizawa, T., Sunamori, M., Handa, M., Kondo, T., Sasano, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Association of AKT1 with schizophrenia confirmed in a Japanese population. Ikeda, M., Iwata, N., Suzuki, T., Kitajima, T., Yamanouchi, Y., Kinoshita, Y., Inada, T., Ozaki, N. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. p16INK4, pRB, p53 and cyclin D1 expression and hypermethylation of CDKN2 gene in thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Hirabayashi, H., Fujii, Y., Sakaguchi, M., Tanaka, H., Yoon, H.E., Komoto, Y., Inoue, M., Miyoshi, S., Matsuda, H. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Haloacetic acids in drinking water in the United Kingdom. Malliarou, E., Collins, C., Graham, N., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. Water Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Depressor effect induced by dipeptide, Val-Tyr, in hypertensive transgenic mice is due, in part, to the suppression of human circulating renin-angiotensin system. Matsui, T., Hayashi, A., Tamaya, K., Matsumoto, K., Kawasaki, T., Murakami, K., Kimoto, K. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and cancer: risk assessment and integrated evaluation of available data, in animals and humans. Attias, L., Contu, A., Loizzo, A., Massiglia, M., Valente, P., Zapponi, G.A. Sci. Total Environ. (1995) [Pubmed]
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