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Gene Review

Hao1  -  hydroxyacid oxidase 1, liver

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GOX, Glycolate oxidase, Gox1, HAOX1, Hao-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Hao1

  • Endothelial disruption and blebbing, elevated lung wet-to-dry ratio, and interstitial and alveolar edema indicated that anti-PECAM-GOX damaged pulmonary endothelium [1].

High impact information on Hao1

  • Both types of conjugates had equally high pulmonary uptake after intravenous injection in mice, yet only small (200- to 250-nm), not large (600- to 700-nm), GOX conjugates caused profound oxidative vascular injury in the lungs, presumably owing to intracellular generation of H(2)O(2) [2].
  • Ltk(-) and Cos-7 cells were transfected with vectors expressing a fusion protein of green fluorescence protein and Hao1, as well as mutants thereof [3].
  • Recently, we have cloned a cDNA for the mouse hydroxyacid oxidase 1 (Hao1), a protein that seems to be localized in peroxisomes [3].
  • Electrophoretic polymorphisms for stomach alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-C2) and kidney L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase (HAOX-B4) have been identified in an Asian subspecies of mouse, Musmusculus castaneous [4].
  • Coinjection of anti-PECAM/catalase protected against anti-TM/GOX-induced pulmonary oxidative stress, injury, and lethality, whereas polyethylene glycol catalase or IgG/catalase conjugates afforded only marginal protective effects [5].

Biological context of Hao1


Anatomical context of Hao1

  • After intravenous injection in mice, anti-TM/GOX binds to pulmonary endothelium and produces H2O2, which causes lung injury and 100% lethality within 7 h [5].
  • To validate the strategy, we conjugated glucose oxidase (GOX) via streptavidin with antibodies to the endothelial cell surface antigen platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) [1].

Associations of Hao1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Hao1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hao1

  • Molecular cloning of mouse glycolate oxidase. High evolutionary conservation and presence of an iron-responsive element-like sequence in the mRNA [11].
  • Previous work documented that 1) anti-PECAM-streptavidin carrier accumulates in the lungs after intravenous injection in animals and 2) anti-PECAM-GOX binds to, enters, and kills endothelium via intracellular H(2)O(2) generation in cell culture [1].
  • The influence of immobilization chemistry was investigated with GOX [12].


  1. Immunotargeting of glucose oxidase to endothelium in vivo causes oxidative vascular injury in the lungs. Christofidou-Solomidou, M., Pietra, G.G., Solomides, C.C., Arguiris, E., Harshaw, D., Fitzgerald, G.A., Albelda, S.M., Muzykantov, V.R. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Size-dependent intracellular immunotargeting of therapeutic cargoes into endothelial cells. Wiewrodt, R., Thomas, A.P., Cipelletti, L., Christofidou-Solomidou, M., Weitz, D.A., Feinstein, S.I., Schaffer, D., Albelda, S.M., Koval, M., Muzykantov, V.R. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Peroxisomal targeting of mammalian hydroxyacid oxidase 1 requires the C-terminal tripeptide SKI. Recalcati, S., Menotti, E., Kühn, L.C. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The genetics of alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the mouse: evidence for multiple gene loci and linkage between Hao-2 and Adh-3. Holmes, R.S. Genetics (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. PECAM-directed delivery of catalase to endothelium protects against pulmonary vascular oxidative stress. Christofidou-Solomidou, M., Scherpereel, A., Wiewrodt, R., Ng, K., Sweitzer, T., Arguiri, E., Shuvaev, V., Solomides, C.C., Albelda, S.M., Muzykantov, V.R. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetics of hydroxyacid oxidase isozymes in the mouse: localisation of Hao-2 on linkage group XVI. Holmes, R.S. Heredity (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic localization of Hao-1, blind-sterile (bs), and Emv-13 on mouse chromosome 2. Spence, S.E., Gilbert, D.J., Harris, B.S., Davisson, M.T., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Peroxisome-proliferating effects of fenoprofen in mice. De Craemer, D., Van den Branden, C., Pauwels, M., Vamecq, J. Lipids (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification and expression of a cDNA for human glycolate oxidase. Williams, E., Cregeen, D., Rumsby, G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetics of peroxisomal enzymes in the mouse: nonlinkage of D-amino acid oxidase locus (Dao) to catalase (Cs) and L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase (Hao-1) loci on chromosome 2. Holmes, R.S. Biochem. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of mouse glycolate oxidase. High evolutionary conservation and presence of an iron-responsive element-like sequence in the mRNA. Kohler, S.A., Menotti, E., Kühn, L.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of compact, porous units with immobilized ligands with high molecular masses in affinity chromatography and enzymatic conversion of substrates with high and low molecular masses. Josić, D., Schwinn, H., Strancar, A., Podgornik, A., Barut, M., Lim, Y.P., Vodopivec, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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