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Gene Review

clec-119  -  Protein CLEC-119

Caenorhabditis elegans

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Disease relevance of proteinase

  • A specific extracellular proteinase, degrading selectively the cecropin-based defence system of insects, is secreted into the larval body during parasitism of the greater wax moth by the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora/Photorhabdus luminescens complex and by phase 1 of P. luminescens [1].
  • In this study, a 1713bp long cDNA encoding for a putative proteinase of O. volvulus has been isolated [2].
  • Recombinant propeptides of HGCP-Iv, expressed in E. coli, presented high inhibitory activity in vitro towards its cognate enzyme and proteinase activity of Meloidogyne incognita females, suggesting its usefulness in inhibiting nematode CPs in biological systems [3].

High impact information on proteinase

  • MMC contain and secrete a neutral proteinase, rat mast cell protease II (RMCP II); detection and assay of secreted RMCP II therefore provides a direct measurement of MMC activity [4].
  • The amount of the Cu(2+)- Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (CE23550) and an aspartyl proteinase (CE21681) was highest in the first larval stage (L1) and decreased during the ontogenesis from the first larval stage to the adult [5].
  • Identification of stable plant cystatin/nematode proteinase complexes using mildly denaturing gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [6].
  • Interestingly, the two plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors OCI and OCII showed different degrees of affinity for the major proteinase form, Mhp1 [6].
  • A pepstatin A-agarose column was used in an attempt to purify a previously described antibody-degrading aspartyl proteinase from excretory-secretory material from the L4 and the adult stages of the bovine abomasal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi [7].

Biological context of proteinase


Anatomical context of proteinase


Associations of proteinase with chemical compounds

  • The information gained from these studies indicates that serine proteinases are an important group of enzymes in H. glycines and further characterization will aid the development of a proteinase inhibitor-based approach for transgenic plant resistance to plant parasitic nematodes [12].
  • Binding of the monoclonal antibodies to the third-stage larvae was abrogated by treatment of the worms with trypsin and proteinase K, but was unaffected by treatment with periodate or the detergents sodium deoxycholate and SDS [13].
  • Egg disruption procedures tested included probe sonication, bath sonication, bead beating, boiling, microwaving, proteinase K/SDS digestion, freezing, and various combinations of the above with the incorporation of sodium dodecyl sulfate [14].
  • The proteinase K digested peaks were subjected to Edman degradation (first peak, ser-pro-ser/gly-ser; second peak, tyr/arg-leu), mass spectrometry (no result) and MALDI analysis (no result) [10].
  • Worms from lambs given molybdenum contained less proteinase enzyme activity and secreted less proteinases in culture irrespective of the sex of the host [15].

Other interactions of proteinase


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of proteinase

  • The relatively low concentrations of SMCP in blood and lymph reflect the presence of proteinase inhibitor(s) which interfered with the ELISA [19].
  • The rational development of this strategy involves characterization of nematode proteinase genes and optimization of inhibitors by protein engineering [20].
  • A variety of genes, besides (Bt) toxins that are now available for genetic engineering for pest resistance are genes for vegetative insecticidal proteins, proteinase inhibitors, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and plant lectins [21].
  • Southern blot analysis suggests that the cathepsin S-like enzyme, HGCP-II, is encoded by a single-copy gene in contrast to the cathepsin L-like proteinase, HGCP-I which may have 2 homologues [22].
  • Molecular cloning of a novel multidomain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum [23].


  1. Active resistance of entomophagous rhabditid Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to insect immunity. Jarosz, J. Parasitology (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of onchoastacin, an astacin-like metalloproteinase from the filaria Onchocerca volvulus. Borchert, N., Becker-Pauly, C., Wagner, A., Fischer, P., Stöcker, W., Brattig, N.W. Microbes Infect. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Pro domain peptide of HGCP-Iv cysteine proteinase inhibits nematode cysteine proteinases. Silva, F.B., Batista, J.A., Marra, B.M., Fragoso, R.R., Monteiro, A.C., Figueira, E.L., Grossi-de-Sá, M.F. Genet. Mol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Mucosal mast cells are functionally active during spontaneous expulsion of intestinal nematode infections in rat. Woodbury, R.G., Miller, H.R., Huntley, J.F., Newlands, G.F., Palliser, A.C., Wakelin, D. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Profiling stage-dependent changes of protein expression in Caenorhabditis elegans by mass spectrometric proteome analysis leads to the identification of stage-specific marker proteins. Mádi, A., Mikkat, S., Ringel, B., Thiesen, H.J., Glocker, M.O. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of stable plant cystatin/nematode proteinase complexes using mildly denaturing gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Michaud, D., Cantin, L., Bonadé-Bottino, M., Jouanin, L., Vrain, T.C. Electrophoresis (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Protein disulphide isomerase of Ostertagia ostertagi: an excretory-secretory product of L4 and adult worms? Geldhof, P., Vercauteren, I., Knox, D., Demaere, V., Van Zeveren, A., Berx, G., Vercruysse, J., Claerebout, E. Int. J. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Extensive diversity in repeat unit sequences of the cDNA encoding the polyprotein antigen/allergen from the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus. Britton, C., Moore, J., Gilleard, J.S., Kennedy, M.W. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a serine proteinase inhibitor from Trichinella spiralis. Nagano, I., Wu, Z., Nakada, T., Matsuo, A., Takahashi, Y. Parasitology (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification of MINUS: A negative regulator of microtubule nucleation in a variety of organisms. Shahani, N., Subramaniam, S., Brandt, R. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Anisakis simplex: uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the muscle mitochondria of infected fish. Boczon, K., Bier, J.W. Exp. Parasitol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of cDNAs encoding serine proteinases from the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. Lilley, C.J., Urwin, P.E., Atkinson, H.J., McPherson, M.J. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Onchocerca volvulus: biochemical and morphological characteristics of the surface of third- and fourth-stage larvae. Lustigman, S., Huima, T., Brotman, B., Miller, K., Prince, A.M. Exp. Parasitol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Improved methods for isolating DNA from Ostertagia ostertagi eggs in cattle feces. Harmon, A.F., Zarlenga, D.S., Hildreth, M.B. Vet. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of dietary molybdenum on nematode and host during Trichostrongylus vitrinus infection in lambs. Suttle, N.F., Knox, D.P., Jackson, F., Coop, R.L., Angus, K.W. Res. Vet. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification and characterization of the proteolytic enzymes in the developmental stages of the eel-pathogenic nematode Anguillicola crassus. Polzer, M., Taraschewski, H. Parasitol. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Developmentally regulated zinc metalloproteinases from third- and fourth-stage larvae of the ovine nematode Haemonchus contortus. Gamble, H.R., Fetterer, R.H., Mansfield, L.S. J. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Diversity and partial characterization of putative virulence determinants in Pasteuria penetrans, the hyperparasitic bacterium of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Davies, K.G., Redden, M. J. Appl. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Systemic release of a mast cell proteinase following nematode infections in sheep. Huntley, J.F., Gibson, S., Brown, D., Smith, W.D., Jackson, F., Miller, H.R. Parasite Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of plant nematode genes: identifying targets for a transgenic defence. Lilley, C.J., Urwin, P.E., Atkinson, H.J. Parasitology (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein proteinase inhibitor genes in combat against insects, pests, and pathogens: natural and engineered phytoprotection. Haq, S.K., Atif, S.M., Khan, R.H. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of two cDNAs encoding cysteine proteinases from the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. Urwin, P.E., Lilley, C.J., McPherson, M.J., Atkinson, H.J. Parasitology (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning of a novel multidomain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. Hawdon, J.M., Datu, B., Crowell, M. J. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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