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Gene Review

Myh11  -  myosin, heavy polypeptide 11, smooth muscle

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AV071570, Myosin heavy chain 11, Myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle isoform, Myosin-11, SM1, ...
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Disease relevance of Myh11

  • In contrast, the CBFbeta-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) fusion protein generated by the inv(16) associated with acute myeloid leukemias (M4Eo) cannot rescue definitive hematopoiesis by Cbfb-deficient ES cells [1].
  • CBFbeta-SMMHC significantly increased the development of acute leukemias from marrow lacking the overlapping p16p19 genes, based on analysis of Kaplan-Meier event-time distributions [2].

High impact information on Myh11

  • This has allowed us to gain new insights into the mechanism of leukemogenesis by CBFbeta-SMMHC [3].
  • CBF(PEBP2)beta- SMMHC, the chimeric protein associated with inv(16) acute myeloid leukemia, was found to protect RUNX1 from proteolytic degradation more efficiently than PEBP2beta [3].
  • Subcellular localizations of the wild-type CBFbeta and the CBFbeta-SMMHC fusion protein were determined by immunofluorescence of NIH 3T3 cells that overexpress wild-type or fusion protein [4].
  • An inversion of chromosome 16 associated with the M4Eo subtype of acute myeloid leukemia produces a chimeric protein fusing the beta subunit of the transcription factor core binding factor (CBF beta) to the tail region of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) [5].
  • NIH 3T3 cells expressing CBF beta-SMMHC acquired a transformed phenotype, as indicated by their ability to form foci, grow in soft agarose, and form tumors in nude mice [5].

Biological context of Myh11

  • Sequences responsible for the inability of CBFbeta-SMMHC to rescue definitive hematopoiesis reside in the SMMHC portion of the fusion protein [1].
  • Cells transformed by CBF beta-SMMHC lack normal CBF-DNA complexes and have decreased levels of transactivation [6].
  • Thus, c-Myc-ER acts downstream of CBFbeta-SMMHC to stimulate cell cycle progression [7].
  • CBF beta-SMMHC increased the proportion of cells in G1 1.7-fold, on average, in 32D cl3 and Ba/F3 cells, and decreased the proportion of cells in S phase by a similar degree [8].
  • These observations suggest that CBFbeta-SMMHC plays a dominant negative role by sequestering CBFalpha2 into cytoskeletal filaments and aggregates, thereby disrupting CBFalpha2-mediated regulation of gene expression [9].

Anatomical context of Myh11


Associations of Myh11 with chemical compounds

  • Exposing mice transplanted with CBFbeta-SMMHC-transduced cells to a mutagen, ethylnitrosourea, markedly accelerated leukemogenesis compared to expressing CBFbeta-SMMHC with loss of p16p19, indicating the need for multiple "hits" for transformation [2].
  • CBF beta-SMMHC reduced endogenous CBF DNA-binding fivefold in both cell types, increased cell generation time 1.9-fold, on average, in 32D cl3 cells and 1.5-fold in Ba/ F3 cells and decreased tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA correspondingly [8].

Other interactions of Myh11


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myh11

  • Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed that extracts from cells transformed by CBF beta-SMMHC no longer formed the normal CBF/DNA complex but instead formed a much larger complex that did not migrate into the gel [5].
  • At 1, 3, or 6 weeks postoperatively neurologic evaluation and cystometry were performed, bladders were harvested, and expression patterns of SMMHC isoforms (SM1 vs. SM2 and SMA vs. SMB) were assessed by RT-PCR [12].


  1. Core-binding factor beta (CBFbeta), but not CBFbeta-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, rescues definitive hematopoiesis in CBFbeta-deficient embryonic stem cells. Miller, J.D., Stacy, T., Liu, P.P., Speck, N.A. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Acceleration of G(1) cooperates with core binding factor beta-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain to induce acute leukemia in mice. Yang, Y., Wang, W., Cleaves, R., Zahurak, M., Cheng, L., Civin, C.I., Friedman, A.D. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Dimerization with PEBP2beta protects RUNX1/AML1 from ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Huang, G., Shigesada, K., Ito, K., Wee, H.J., Yokomizo, T., Ito, Y. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Core binding factor beta-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain chimeric protein involved in acute myeloid leukemia forms unusual nuclear rod-like structures in transformed NIH 3T3 cells. Wijmenga, C., Gregory, P.E., Hajra, A., Schröck, E., Ried, T., Eils, R., Liu, P.P., Collins, F.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. The leukemic core binding factor beta-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (CBF beta-SMMHC) chimeric protein requires both CBF beta and myosin heavy chain domains for transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Hajra, A., Liu, P.P., Wang, Q., Kelley, C.A., Stacy, T., Adelstein, R.S., Speck, N.A., Collins, F.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Overexpression of core-binding factor alpha (CBF alpha) reverses cellular transformation by the CBF beta-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain chimeric oncoprotein. Hajra, A., Liu, P.P., Speck, N.A., Collins, F.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. c-Myc overcomes cell cycle inhibition by CBFbeta-SMMHC, a myeloid leukemia oncoprotein. Bernardin, F., Yang, Y., Civin, C.I., Friedman, A.D. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. CBF beta-SMMHC, expressed in M4Eo AML, reduced CBF DNA-binding and inhibited the G1 to S cell cycle transition at the restriction point in myeloid and lymphoid cells. Cao, W., Britos-Bray, M., Claxton, D.F., Kelley, C.A., Speck, N.A., Liu, P.P., Friedman, A.D. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The leukemic protein core binding factor beta (CBFbeta)-smooth-muscle myosin heavy chain sequesters CBFalpha2 into cytoskeletal filaments and aggregates. Adya, N., Stacy, T., Speck, N.A., Liu, P.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Core binding factor cannot synergistically activate the myeloperoxidase proximal enhancer in immature myeloid cells without c-Myb. Britos-Bray, M., Friedman, A.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. CBFbeta-SMMHC slows proliferation of primary murine and human myeloid progenitors. D'Costa, J., Chaudhuri, S., Civin, C.I., Friedman, A.D. Leukemia (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in detrusor smooth muscle myosin heavy chain mRNA expression following spinal cord injury in the mouse. Wilson, T.S., Aziz, K.A., Vazques, D., Wuermser, L.A., Lin, V.K., Lemack, G.E. Neurourology and urodynamics. (2005) [Pubmed]
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