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Gene Review

Pfkm  -  phosphofructokinase, muscle

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 6-phosphofructokinase type A, AI131669, ATP-PFK, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, muscle type, PFK-A, ...
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Disease relevance of Pfkm


High impact information on Pfkm

  • However, it remains unknown whether Cav-3 expression is required for the plasma membrane recruitment and caveolar targeting of PFK-M [2].
  • Analysis of skeletal muscle tissue samples from Cav-3(-/-) mice directly demonstrates that Cav-3 expression regulates the phenotypic behavior of PFK-M [2].
  • In addition, we show that the membrane recruitment and caveolar targeting of PFK-M appears to be strictly dependent on the concentration of extracellular glucose [2].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence is highly homologous to PFK-M (muscle) and PFK-L (liver), 69 and 65% amino acid identity, respectively, especially at substrate binding and catalytic sites, while the allosteric binding sites are less conserved [3].
  • The relative rate of PFK-A synthesis increased sharply (5-fold) at an initial period of differentiation (8 h) and reached maximum of 10-fold at 48 h, to make PFK-A the major isoform synthesized in myotubes [4].

Biological context of Pfkm


Anatomical context of Pfkm

  • The hybridizable mRNA level for PFK-A increased gradually, reaching 13-fold at 48 h when 80% of cells was fused to myotubes [4].
  • The PFK-A mRNA level at 96 h was 90-fold of that for myoblasts [4].
  • These isoforms are expressed specifically in the testis and in the mid-gestation embryo, and have been termed TE-PFK-M (testis- and embryo-specific PFK-M) [9].

Associations of Pfkm with chemical compounds

  • The activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactic acid (LD) and the level of lactate dehydroenase (LDH) and ATP were detected, and the mRNA and protein levels of EPO in the cortices were analyzed [10].

Physical interactions of Pfkm

  • The combination of modeling data obtained with purified and extract systems suggests that aldolase binds to an intermediate dimer of phosphofructokinase and within this heterocomplex the kinase is completely active [11].

Other interactions of Pfkm

  • The mouse PFK-C gene organization is similar to that of the human and rabbit PFK-A and human and mouse PFK-B genes [6].
  • The same values of flux control coefficients for hexokinase and for phosphofructokinase (0.8 and 0.2 respectively) were found in absence and in presence of copper [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pfkm

  • Molecular cloning of the 5' part of mouse phosphofructokinase-M cDNA was performed [7].
  • Compared to the control group, the mouse in the group treated with the PO extracts by 1 g/d had significantly higher activities of PF, PFK, LDH and higher levels of ATP in the cortices, especially under the hypoxic environment for 24 hours [10].


  1. Detachment of glycolytic enzymes from cytoskeleton of melanoma cells induced by calmodulin antagonists. Glass-Marmor, L., Beitner, R. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Phosphofructokinase muscle-specific isoform requires caveolin-3 expression for plasma membrane recruitment and caveolar targeting: implications for the pathogenesis of caveolin-related muscle diseases. Sotgia, F., Bonuccelli, G., Minetti, C., Woodman, S.E., Capozza, F., Kemp, R.G., Scherer, P.E., Lisanti, M.P. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure, distribution, and functional expression of the phosphofructokinase C isozyme. Gekakis, N., Johnson, R.C., Jerkins, A., Mains, R.E., Sul, H.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Phosphofructokinase isozyme expression during myoblast differentiation. Gekakis, N., Gehnrich, S.C., Sul, H.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Association of phosphofructokinase-M with caveolin-3 in differentiated skeletal myotubes. Dynamic regulation by extracellular glucose and intracellular metabolites. Scherer, P.E., Lisanti, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomic organization, 5'flanking region and tissue-specific expression of mouse phosphofructokinase C gene. Gunasekera, D., Kemp, R.G. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of mouse phosphofructokinase-M gene alternative transcripts: evidence for the conserved two-promoter system. Nakajima, H., Noguchi, T., Hamaguchi, T., Tomita, K., Hanafusa, T., Kono, N., Tanaka, T., Kuwajima, M., Matsuzawa, Y. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Application of metabolic control analysis to the study of toxic effects of copper in muscle glycolysis. Jannaschk, D., Burgos, M., Centerlles, J.J., Ovadi, J., Cascante, M. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Novel testis- and embryo-specific isoforms of the phosphofructokinase-1 muscle type gene. Yamada, S., Nakajima, H., Kuehn, M.R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Protective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on hypoxic nerve tissue and its mechanism. Wang, W., Gu, L., Dong, L., Wang, X., Ling, C., Li, M. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Quantitative characterization of homo- and heteroassociations of muscle phosphofructokinase with aldolase. Raïs, B., Ortega, F., Puigjaner, J., Comin, B., Orosz, F., Ovádi, J., Cascante, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
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