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Gene Review

Aldoa  -  aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Aldo-1, Aldo1, Aldolase 1, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, Muscle-type aldolase
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Disease relevance of Aldoa


Psychiatry related information on Aldoa


High impact information on Aldoa

  • This process yielded aldolase catalytic antibodies that approximated the rate acceleration of the natural enzyme used in glycolysis [7].
  • 2-Deoxyglucose and cytochalasin D modulate aldolase mobility in living 3T3 cells [8].
  • Approximately 23% of the glycolytic enzyme aldolase in the perinuclear region of Swiss 3T3 cells is immobile as measured by FRAP [8].
  • We have tested the effect of a key glycolytic inhibitor and an actin cytoskeletal modulator on the mobility of aldolase in living cells directly, using fluorescent analog cytochemistry and FRAP [8].
  • We report here that the competitive hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose releases the bound fraction of aldolase in 3T3 cells within 10 min, and that this process is reversible upon washout of the inhibitor [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Aldoa

  • Prolonged exposure of mice to hypoxia (7.5% O2 for up to 72 hours) also caused a decrease in liver HIF-1alpha mRNA, whereas aldolase mRNA levels increased [9].
  • We report here that the local anesthetics, lidocaine and bupivacaine, induced a dose-dependent detachment of the glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (EC and aldolase (EC, from cytoskeleton of B16 melanoma cells [3].
  • Undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells contained only the early embryonic forms of all three enzymes, while differentiated cells formed in vivo, and in some cases in vitro, started to express the adult types of creatine phosphokinase and aldolase [10].
  • Metabolism of triceps, pectoralis (in the vicinity of tumor) and gastrocnemius (away from the tumor) muscles in Swiss albino mice bearing adenocarcinoma has been studied histochemically with regard to content of glycogen, lipids, phosphorylase, aldolase, lipase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in the constituent fibres [5].

Biological context of Aldoa


Anatomical context of Aldoa


Associations of Aldoa with chemical compounds

  • Within 2 h, C7-deficient serum plus C7, compared with C7-deficient serum alone, induced markedly decreased levels of mRNAs encoding alpha-actin, troponin I slow twitch isoform, acetylcholine receptor alpha, and muscle aldolase A, whereas the heat shock protein 83 mRNA level remained constant, by northern analysis [20].
  • Developmental expression patterns of liver-specific markers that are up-regulated (e.g., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and aldolase B) and down-regulated (e.g., alpha-fetoprotein) are similar [21].
  • This interaction was prevented by incubation with the aldolase substrates, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate [22].
  • Aldolase mediates the association of F-actin with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 [22].
  • We firmly establish that the endogenous aldolase B gene's first response to glucagon or cyclic AMP exposure was a transient increase in the expression in the liver, followed by a secondary decline in the transcription, as previously reported [23].

Physical interactions of Aldoa

  • The combination of modeling data obtained with purified and extract systems suggests that aldolase binds to an intermediate dimer of phosphofructokinase and within this heterocomplex the kinase is completely active [24].

Co-localisations of Aldoa

  • In immunocytochemical assays, aldolase was found to colocalize with V-ATPase in the renal proximal tubule [25].

Other interactions of Aldoa

  • In addition, alpha-fetoprotein and aldolase A mRNA levels were also higher than in normal littermates [26].
  • The glycolytic enzymes PFK, ALD, and G3PDH were distributed throughout the hypodermal tissue, somatic muscles and reproductive organs [27].
  • The expression of alpha-fetoprotein and aldolase A was elevated, indicating that the liver of jvs mice is undifferentiated or dedifferentiated (FEBS Lett. 311, 63-66, 1992) [28].
  • In cultures containing predominantly nerve-type cells, there was a 30-fold increase in the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase, with concomitant appearance of the aldolase isoenzyme characteristic of mouse brain [29].
  • In addition to GAPDHS, ALDOA, and LDHA, this method determined that pyruvate kinase is also tightly bound to the fibrous sheath [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aldoa


  1. Detachment of glycolytic enzymes from cytoskeleton of melanoma cells induced by calmodulin antagonists. Glass-Marmor, L., Beitner, R. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Oxygen supply and oxygen-dependent gene expression in differentiating embryonic stem cells. Gassmann, M., Fandrey, J., Bichet, S., Wartenberg, M., Marti, H.H., Bauer, C., Wenger, R.H., Acker, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Detachment of the glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase and aldolase, from cytoskeleton of melanoma cells, induced by local anesthetics. Schwartz, D., Beitner, R. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Serine protease in mice with hereditary muscular dystrophy. Sanada, Y., Yasogawa, N., Katunuma, N. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Skeletal muscle metabolism in mice bearing adenocarcinoma. I. Histochemical alterations in glycogenolytic, glycolytic, lipolytic and oxidative metabolism. Asotra, K., Katoch, S.S., Krishan, K., Lata, K., Malhotra, R.K. Experimental pathology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of aldolase as a target antigen in Alzheimer's disease. Mor, F., Izak, M., Cohen, I.R. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Immune versus natural selection: antibody aldolases with enzymic rates but broader scope. Barbas, C.F., Heine, A., Zhong, G., Hoffmann, T., Gramatikova, S., Björnestedt, R., List, B., Anderson, J., Stura, E.A., Wilson, I.A., Lerner, R.A. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. 2-Deoxyglucose and cytochalasin D modulate aldolase mobility in living 3T3 cells. Pagliaro, L., Taylor, D.L. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Mouse hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is encoded by two different mRNA isoforms: expression from a tissue-specific and a housekeeping-type promoter. Wenger, R.H., Rolfs, A., Spielmann, P., Zimmermann, D.R., Gassmann, M. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Isoenzyme transitions of creatine phosphokinase, aldolase and phosphoglycerate mutase in differentiating mouse cells. Adamson, E.D. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Nonconservative utilization of aldolase A alternative promoters. Stauffer, J.K., Colbert, M.C., Ciejek-Baez, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Negative regulation of the mouse aldolase A gene. A cell cycle-dependent DNA binding activity functions as a silencer of gene transcription. Lupo, A., Costanzo, P., Medugno, L., Romeo, I., Salvatore, F., Izzo, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The proximal promoter of the aldolase A gene remains active during myogenesis in vitro and muscle development in vivo. Colbert, M.C., Ciejek-Baez, E. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure and expression of mouse aldolase genes. Brain-specific aldolase C amino acid sequence is closely related to aldolase A. Paolella, G., Buono, P., Mancini, F.P., Izzo, P., Salvatore, F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. A lethal deletion on mouse chromosome 7 affects regulation of liver-cell-specific functions: posttranscriptional control of serum protein and transcriptional control of aldolase B synthesis. Sala-Trepat, J.M., Poiret, M., Sellem, C.H., Bessada, R., Erdos, T., Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Genomic sequences of aldolase C (Zebrin II) direct lacZ expression exclusively in non-neuronal cells of transgenic mice. Walther, E.U., Dichgans, M., Maricich, S.M., Romito, R.R., Yang, F., Dziennis, S., Zackson, S., Hawkes, R., Herrup, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in activities and isozyme patterns of glycolytic enzymes during erythroid differentiation in vitro. Nijhof, W., Wierenga, P.K., Staal, G.E., Jansen, G. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. The hepatocyte-specific phenotype of murine liver cells correlates with high expression of connexin32 and connexin26 but very low expression of connexin43. Stutenkemper, R., Geisse, S., Schwarz, H.J., Look, J., Traub, O., Nicholson, B.J., Willecke, K. Exp. Cell Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Purkinje cell expression of the mouse aldolase C gene in transgenic mice is directed by an upstream regulatory element. Romito-Digiacomo, R.R., Walther, E.U., Williams, E.A., Herrup, K. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Sublytic terminal complement attack on myotubes decreases the expression of mRNAs encoding muscle-specific proteins. Lang, T.J., Badea, T.C., Wade, R., Shin, M.L. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Hepatoblast-like cells populate the adult p53 knockout mouse liver: evidence for a hyperproliferative maturation-arrested stem cell compartment. Dumble, M.L., Knight, B., Quail, E.A., Yeoh, G.C. Cell Growth Differ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Aldolase mediates the association of F-actin with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4. Kao, A.W., Noda, Y., Johnson, J.H., Pessin, J.E., Saltiel, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. In vivo functional characterization of the aldolase B gene enhancer. Gregori, C., Porteu, A., Mitchell, C., Kahn, A., Pichard, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Quantitative characterization of homo- and heteroassociations of muscle phosphofructokinase with aldolase. Raïs, B., Ortega, F., Puigjaner, J., Comin, B., Orosz, F., Ovádi, J., Cascante, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Interaction between aldolase and vacuolar H+-ATPase: evidence for direct coupling of glycolysis to the ATP-hydrolyzing proton pump. Lu, M., Holliday, L.S., Zhang, L., Dunn, W.A., Gluck, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Proto-oncogene c-jun and c-fos messenger RNAs increase in the liver of carnitine-deficient juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mice. Tomomura, M., Nakagawa, K., Saheki, T. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Histochemical localization of key glycolytic and related enzymes in adult Onchocerca fasciata. Omar, M.S., Raoof, A.M. J. Helminthol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Abnormal gene expression and regulation in the liver of jvs mice with systemic carnitine deficiency. Tomomura, M., Imamura, Y., Tomomura, A., Horiuchi, M., Saheki, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Biochemical markers of the progress of differentiation in cloned teratocarcinoma cell lines. Adamson, E.D., Evans, M.J., Magrane, G.G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Multiple glycolytic enzymes are tightly bound to the fibrous sheath of mouse spermatozoa. Krisfalusi, M., Miki, K., Magyar, P.L., O'Brien, D.A. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Alternative promoter usage by aldolase A during in vitro myogenesis. Colbert, M.C., Ciejek-Baez, E. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. A humanized aldolase antibody for selective chemotherapy and adaptor immunotherapy. Rader, C., Turner, J.M., Heine, A., Shabat, D., Sinha, S.C., Wilson, I.A., Lerner, R.A., Barbas, C.F. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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