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Gene Review

Araf  -  v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1200013E08Rik, A-Raf, A-raf, AW495444, Araf1, ...
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Disease relevance of Araf

  • When incorporated into a retrovirus, the resulting gag-A-raf fusion gene causes transformation in vitro and induces tumors in newborn mice [1].
  • Using a phage display library to identify basic residues in A-Raf required to mediate binding to the Src homology 2 domains of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase [2].

High impact information on Araf


Chemical compound and disease context of Araf

  • A cysteine-rich region located near the amino terminus, which is highly conserved in A-raf and c-raf, shows significant homology with protein kinase C. A 5' deleted fragment of the cDNA has been incorporated into a murine retrovirus which endows the virus with the ability to transform cells in vivo and in vitro [6].

Biological context of Araf


Anatomical context of Araf


Associations of Araf with chemical compounds

  • A-raf oncogene localizes on mouse X chromosome to region some 10-17 centimorgans proximal to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene [8].
  • Methylation analysis of these degradation products indicated that they contained terminal Rha, Araf, Fuc, Xyl, and Gal, 4-linked Rha, 3-linked Fuc, 3-linked Ara, and 3'-linked Api [14].
  • Approximately 50% of the clones identified encoded portions of the c-Raf and A-Raf serine/threonine kinases [15].
  • A fivefold dexamethasone-dependent induction of A-raf promoter activity was observed using constructs containing all three GRE motifs whereas point mutations in the GREs either diminished or abolished dexamethasone induction [16].
  • These results demonstrate that the A-raf promoter is regulated in part by members of the glucocorticoid family of steroid hormone receptors and suggest a model for the regulation of A-raf expression in urogenital tissues [16].

Other interactions of Araf


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Araf


  1. Characterization of murine A-raf, a new oncogene related to the v-raf oncogene. Huleihel, M., Goldsborough, M., Cleveland, J., Gunnell, M., Bonner, T., Rapp, U.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Using a phage display library to identify basic residues in A-Raf required to mediate binding to the Src homology 2 domains of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase. King, T.R., Fang, Y., Mahon, E.S., Anderson, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Endothelial apoptosis in Braf-deficient mice. Wojnowski, L., Zimmer, A.M., Beck, T.W., Hahn, H., Bernal, R., Rapp, U.R., Zimmer, A. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Raf-1 is not required for megakaryocytopoiesis or TPO-induced ERK phosphorylation. Kamata, T., Pritchard, C.A., Leavitt, A.D. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Conditionally oncogenic forms of the A-Raf and B-Raf protein kinases display different biological and biochemical properties in NIH 3T3 cells. Pritchard, C.A., Samuels, M.L., Bosch, E., McMahon, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. The complete coding sequence of the human A-raf-1 oncogene and transforming activity of a human A-raf carrying retrovirus. Beck, T.W., Huleihel, M., Gunnell, M., Bonner, T.I., Rapp, U.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Detailed genetic mapping of the A-raf proto-oncogene on the mouse X chromosome. Grant, S.G., Chapman, V.M. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. A-raf oncogene localizes on mouse X chromosome to region some 10-17 centimorgans proximal to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Avner, P., Bućan, M., Arnaud, D., Lehrach, H., Rapp, U. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Fractionation and chemical properties of immunomodulating polysaccharides from roots of Dipsacus asperoides. Zhang, Y., Kiyohara, H., Matsumoto, T., Yamada, H. Planta Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of raf family proto-oncogenes in normal mouse tissues. Storm, S.M., Cleveland, J.L., Rapp, U.R. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Post-natal lethality and neurological and gastrointestinal defects in mice with targeted disruption of the A-Raf protein kinase gene. Pritchard, C.A., Bolin, L., Slattery, R., Murray, R., McMahon, M. Curr. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Developmental and cell lineage specificity of raf family gene expression in mouse testis. Wadewitz, A.G., Winer, M.A., Wolgemuth, D.J. Oncogene (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. The segment-specific pattern of A-raf expression in the mouse epididymis is regulated by testicular factors. Winer, M.A., Wolgemuth, D.J. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Structural studies of endopolygalacturonase-resistant fragments of an antiulcer pectin from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L. Hirano, M., Kiyohara, H., Matsumoto, T., Yamada, H. Carbohydr. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Mammalian Ras interacts directly with the serine/threonine kinase Raf. Vojtek, A.B., Hollenberg, S.M., Cooper, J.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of A-raf expression. Lee, J.E., Beck, T.W., Wojnowski, L., Rapp, U.R. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Physical linkage of the A-raf-1, properdin, synapsin I, and TIMP genes on the human and mouse X chromosomes. Derry, J.M., Barnard, P.J. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. ERK signalling and oncogene transformation are not impaired in cells lacking A-Raf. Mercer, K., Chiloeches, A., Hüser, M., Kiernan, M., Marais, R., Pritchard, C. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. M-Ras/R-Ras3, a transforming ras protein regulated by Sos1, GRF1, and p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein, interacts with the putative Ras effector AF6. Quilliam, L.A., Castro, A.F., Rogers-Graham, K.S., Martin, C.B., Der, C.J., Bi, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Phorbol ester and bryostatin differentially regulate the hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine in Ha-ras- and raf-oncogene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. Kiss, Z., Rapp, U.R., Pettit, G.R., Anderson, W.B. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Transforming activity of DNA from rat liver tumors induced by the carcinogen methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine. Goyette, M., Dolan, M., Kaufmann, W., Kaufman, D., Shank, P.R., Fausto, N. Mol. Carcinog. (1988) [Pubmed]
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