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Gene Review

Phf1  -  PHD finger protein 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AW557215, D17Ertd455e, PHF2, Pcl1, Phf2, ...
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Psychiatry related information on Phf1


High impact information on Phf1

  • A PHD finger motif in the C terminus of RAG2 modulates recombination activity [2].
  • Immunoblot analysis using anti-phospho-tau antibodies (AT-8, AT-100, AT-180, AT-270, PHF-1, and SMI-31) demonstrates the site-specific phosphorylation of tau at Ser-199, Ser-202, Ser-212, and Thr-214 in the brains of aged NPC1+/- mice [3].
  • Functional analysis of disease and phosphoinositide-binding mutations reveals novel intramolecular interactions within the non-core region and suggests that the PHD finger adopts two distinct states [2].
  • Immunoblot analysis using anti-tau antibodies (Tau-1, PHF-1, AT-180, and AT-100) revealed site-specific phosphorylation of tau at Ser-396 and Ser-404 in the brains of NPC homozygous mice [4].
  • Morphological examination demonstrated that a number of neurons, the perikarya of which strongly immunostained with PHF-1, exhibited polymorphorous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multi-concentric lamellar-like bodies [4].

Biological context of Phf1


Anatomical context of Phf1

  • In the spinal cord, 87% of PHF-1-labeled cells colocalize with the transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-link [8].

Associations of Phf1 with chemical compounds

  • Included in the group of the putative AF-2 TIFs identified so far is TIF1alpha, a member of a new family of proteins which contains an N-terminal RBCC (RING finger-B boxes-coiled coil) motif and a C-terminal bromodomain preceded by a PHD finger [9].
  • Three discrete domains can be identified in the Xenopus laevis WSTF protein, a PHD finger, a DDT domain and a bromodomain [10].
  • We demonstrate herein that dietary deprivation of folate and vitamin E, coupled with iron as a pro-oxidant, fosters an increase in nonphospho- and-phospho-tau within brain tissue of mice homozygously lacking apolipoprotein E as assayed by monoclonal antibodies Tau-1 and PHF-1, respectively [11].
  • These studies describe a novel mechanism for MPTP neurotoxicity, namely a MPTP-inducible, strictly alpha-Syn-dependent, increased formation of PHF-1-reactive Tau, suggesting convergent overlapping pathways in the genesis of clinically divergent diseases such as AD and PD [12].

Other interactions of Phf1

  • Mouse Tctex3 gene was mapped adjacent to Tsc2 gene on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 17, and HUTEX3 was located closely to HSET gene in the HLA class II region of chromosome 6 [5].
  • The region containing this conserved motif is shared among members of the Polycomblike proteins that include the mouse M96 and Drosophila Polycomblike [5].
  • An active fragment of caspase-3, a downstream mediator of cytochrome c, was observed within 8 h and cleaved PHF-1-positive tau [13].
  • Alkaline phosphatase treatment abolished AT8 and PHF-1 immunoreactivity, confirming that the tau phosphorylation sites were at least at Ser(199/202) and Ser396 [14].
  • When DVL-1 protein was overexpressed, the hyperphosphorylation of neurofilament at SMI31 and SMI32 epitopes and tau at PHF-1 (Ser-396/404), M4 (Thr-231/Ser-235), and Tau-1 (Ser-198/199/202) epitopes was attenuated [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phf1

  • PHF-1 tau was cleaved within 8 h following exposure of cortical cell cultures to apoptosis-inducing agents [1].
  • By quantitative immunocytochemistry, we show that aberrant phosphorylation at the Ser199/Ser202 epitope (AT-8) and at the Ser 396 epitope (PHF-1) are moderately induced, proportionally to the degree of kinase stimulation [16].
  • After 4 hr, cultures were fixed and processed for immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies (PHF-1, ALZ-50, Tau-1, AT8) directed against tau in various phosphorylation states followed by fluorescein-conjugated secondary antibodies [17].
  • Microdensitometric analyses indicated that microinjection of PKC did not increase basal immunofluorescent intensities of the antibodies; by contrast, microinjection of PKM induced three- and twofold increases in PHF-1 and ALZ-50 levels, respectively [17].


  1. Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of PHF-1 tau during apoptosis irrespective of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress: an implication to Alzheimer's disease. Kang, H.J., Yoon, W.J., Moon, G.J., Kim, D.Y., Sohn, S., Kwon, H.J., Gwag, B.J. Neurobiol. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A PHD finger motif in the C terminus of RAG2 modulates recombination activity. Elkin, S.K., Ivanov, D., Ewalt, M., Ferguson, C.G., Hyberts, S.G., Sun, Z.Y., Prestwich, G.D., Yuan, J., Wagner, G., Oettinger, M.A., Gozani, O.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Neurodegeneration in heterozygous Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mouse: implication of heterozygous NPC1 mutations being a risk for tauopathy. Yu, W., Ko, M., Yanagisawa, K., Michikawa, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Site-specific phosphorylation of tau accompanied by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in brains of Niemann-Pick type C mice. Sawamura, N., Gong, J.S., Garver, W.S., Heidenreich, R.A., Ninomiya, H., Ohno, K., Yanagisawa, K., Michikawa, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Tctex3, related to Drosophila polycomblike, is expressed in male germ cells and mapped to the mouse t-complex. Kawakami, S., Mitsunaga, K., Kikuti, Y.Y., Ando, A., Inoko, H., Yamamura, K., Abe, K. Mamm. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeted disruption of the mouse ing1 locus results in reduced body size, hypersensitivity to radiation and elevated incidence of lymphomas. Kichina, J.V., Zeremski, M., Aris, L., Gurova, K.V., Walker, E., Franks, R., Nikitin, A.Y., Kiyokawa, H., Gudkov, A.V. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Correlation of the exon/intron organization to the conserved domains of the mouse transcriptional corepressor TIF1beta. Cammas, F., Garnier, J., Chambon, P., Losson, R. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Tau protein is cross-linked by transglutaminase in P301L tau transgenic mice. Halverson, R.A., Lewis, J., Frausto, S., Hutton, M., Muma, N.A. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. TIF1alpha: a possible link between KRAB zinc finger proteins and nuclear receptors. Le Douarin, B., You, J., Nielsen, A.L., Chambon, P., Losson, R. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and developmental expression of WSTF during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Cus, R., Maurus, D., Kühl, M. Gene Expr. Patterns (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Dietary and genetically-induced oxidative stress alter tau phosphorylation: Influence of folate and apolipoprotein E deficiency. Chan, A., Shea, T.B. J. Alzheimers Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Alpha-synuclein induces hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the MPTP model of parkinsonism. Duka, T., Rusnak, M., Drolet, R.E., Duka, V., Wersinger, C., Goudreau, J.L., Sidhu, A. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. 1,2-bis(2-Aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid induces caspase-mediated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species-mediated necrosis in cultured cortical neurons. Han, K.S., Kang, H.J., Kim, E.Y., Yoon, W.J., Sohn, S., Kwon, H.J., Gwag, B.J. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity of a hybrid septal cell line associated with increased tau phosphorylation and expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein. Le, W.D., Xie, W.J., Kong, R., Appel, S.H. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Overexpression of dishevelled-1 attenuates wortmannin-induced hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in N2a cell. Wang, H.H., Zhang, A.H., Zhu, L.Q., Wang, Q., Wang, J.Z. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuronal kinase stimulation leads to aberrant tau phosphorylation and neurotoxicity. Nuydens, R., De Jong, M., Nuyens, R., Cornelissen, F., Geerts, H. Neurobiol. Aging (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Hyperphosphorylation of Tau and filopodial retraction following microinjection of protein kinase C catalytic subunits. Cressman, C.M., Shea, T.B. J. Neurosci. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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