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Gene Review

vrg-6  -  virulence protein

Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50

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Disease relevance of vrg-6


High impact information on vrg-6


Chemical compound and disease context of vrg-6


Biological context of vrg-6

  • A majority of the virulence factors expressed by these bacteria are regulated by a master control locus, BvgAS, a member of the two-component family of signal transduction systems [13].
  • Plasmids were detected in only five of the strains which induced ciliostasis, transfer of plasmids from four of these strains to one which did not induce ciliostasis did not alter its virulence or colony morphology [14].
  • Pathogenic virulence factors can inhibit defensin gene expression, as can environmental factors such as air pollution [15].
  • The virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in gnotobiotic piglets was studied by intranasal infection with 11 cultures derived from eight strains isolated from pigs (4), dogs (2), a human subject and a monkey [16].
  • Flagellin is encoded by a vrg gene, which is expressed when the principal virulence factors are eliminated during antigenic modulation or in phase variants (Akerley et al., 1992) [17].

Anatomical context of vrg-6

  • Virulence was studied by transmission of vaccinal strain through 3 serial growing passages on the nasal mucosa of a litter of hysterectomy-produced colostrum-deprived pigs [18].

Associations of vrg-6 with chemical compounds

  • Western blot analysis demonstrated that virulence factors, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and adenylate cyclase toxin are produced by the sea otter B. bronchiseptica isolate [19].
  • In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs [20].
  • The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied [20].
  • Production of this cytotoxic activity appeared to be regulated by the BvgAS sensory transduction system, which coordinately regulates many B. bronchiseptica virulence factors, since bacteria cultured in the presence of sulfate anions, inhibitors of the BvgAS response, did not exhibit this effect [21].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Congo red binding and urease activity of Bvg+ B. bronchiseptica cultures in different liquid media were compared with the expression of virulence markers such as filamentous haemagglutinin and some outer membrane proteins (OMP) [22].

Other interactions of vrg-6

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica infection requires the activation of virulence genes by the two-component BvgAS regulatory system, which also activates bvgR, a repressor of another set of genes called avirulence genes [23].
  • The fact that the most virulent isolate did not express dermonecrotic toxin suggests that this toxin does not play an important role in the virulence of the bacteria in the murine model [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of vrg-6


  1. Ectopic expression of the flagellar regulon alters development of the Bordetella-host interaction. Akerley, B.J., Cotter, P.A., Miller, J.F. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Virulence factors of Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with the production of infectious atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia in experimentally infected neonatal swine. Roop, R.M., Veit, H.P., Sinsky, R.J., Veit, S.P., Hewlett, E.L., Kornegay, E.T. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Virulence of Streptococcus suis type 2 strains in newborn germfree pigs depends on phenotype. Vecht, U., Wisselink, H.J., van Dijk, J.E., Smith, H.E. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Suppression of serum antibody responses by pertussis toxin after respiratory tract colonization by Bordetella pertussis and identification of an immunodominant lipoprotein. Carbonetti, N.H., Artamonova, G.V., Andreasen, C., Dudley, E., Mays, R.M., Worthington, Z.E. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Species- and strain-specific control of a complex, flexible regulon by Bordetella BvgAS. Cummings, C.A., Bootsma, H.J., Relman, D.A., Miller, J.F. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulation of host immune responses, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by the Bordetella type III secretion system. Yuk, M.H., Harvill, E.T., Cotter, P.A., Miller, J.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional BvgAS virulence control system in Bordetella bronchiseptica is necessary for induction of Ca2+ transients in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Groathouse, N.A., Heinzen, R.A., Boitano, S. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of the dermonecrotic toxin of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease in swine. Brockmeier, S.L., Register, K.B., Magyar, T., Lax, A.J., Pullinger, G.D., Kunkle, R.A. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduced virulence of a Bordetella bronchiseptica siderophore mutant in neonatal swine. Register, K.B., Ducey, T.F., Brockmeier, S.L., Dyer, D.W. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica: role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Gueirard, P., Guiso, N. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and regulation of cold-inducible factors of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Stübs, D., Fuchs, T.M., Schneider, B., Bosserhoff, A., Gross, R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Controlled release of Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotoxin (BBD) vaccine from BBD-loaded chitosan microspheres in vitro. Jiang, H.L., Park, I.K., Shin, N.R., Yoo, H.S., Akaike, T., Cho, C.S. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic regulation of airway colonization by Bordetella species. Yuk, M.H., Cotter, P.A., Miller, J.F. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of potential virulence determinants on Bordetella bronchiseptica-induced ciliostasis. Bemis, D.A., Wilson, S.A. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Antimicrobial peptides in the airway. Laube, D.M., Yim, S., Ryan, L.K., Kisich, K.O., Diamond, G. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the porcine respiratory tract. Collings, L.A., Rutter, J.M. J. Med. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Flagellin, a major protein present in SDS-PAGE profiles of Sarkosyl-OMP-enriched fractions from Bordetella bronchiseptica Bvg- or modulated Bvg+ strains. Passerini de Rossi, B.N., Friedman, L.E., Darnaud, S., de Torres, R.A., Franco, M.A. Vet. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunogenicity and safety of an attenuated Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine in pigs. Sakano, T., Sakurai, K., Furutani, T., Shimizu, T. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular and antigenic characterization of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from a wild southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) with severe suppurative bronchopneumonia. Staveley, C.M., Register, K.B., Miller, M.A., Brockmeier, S.L., Jessup, D.A., Jang, S. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens. Diarra, M.S., Malouin, F., Jacques, M. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Bordetella bronchiseptica has a BvgAS-controlled cytotoxic effect upon interaction with epithelial cells. van den Akker, W.M. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Phenotype evaluation of Bordetella bronchiseptica cultures by urease activity and Congo red affinity. Friedman, L.E., de Rossi, B.N., Messina, M.T., Franco, M.A. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Constitutive expression of bvgR-repressed factors is not detrimental to the Bordetella bronchiseptica-host interaction. Fernández, J., Sisti, F., Bottero, D., Gaillard, M.E., Hozbor, D. Res. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro study of the immune stimulating activity of an atrophic [correction of athrophic] rhinitis vaccine associated to chitosan microspheres. Jiang, H.L., Park, I.K., Shin, N.R., Kang, S.G., Yoo, H.S., Kim, S.I., Suh, S.B., Akaike, T., Cho, C.S. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Virulence of Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis of gnotobiotic pigs infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Rutter, J.M. Res. Vet. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
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