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MeSH Review

Germ-Free Life

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Disease relevance of Germ-Free Life


High impact information on Germ-Free Life

  • In these rats nearly all cecal, colonic, and fecal bile salt sulfate esters were hydrolyzed, resulting in a decrease of total fecal bile salt excretion of greater than 25% compared with gnotobiotic rats without a bile salt desulfating flora [6].
  • The gacA mutants of strain CHA0 have a drastically reduced ability to suppress black root rot under gnotobiotic conditions, supporting the previous observations that the antibiotic Phl and HCN individually contribute to the suppression of black root rot [7].
  • Several lines of evidence, including further enhancement of Mx1 expression during organ culture and gnotobiotic mice analyses, indicated that this apparent constitutive epithelial Mx1 expression was a locally induced response to stimuli present in the respective lumina [8].
  • The infectivity of sera from the viremic virulent HRV-inoculated pigs was confirmed by inoculating gnotobiotic pigs orally with pooled HRV-positive serum [9].
  • Better colonization of the phenylpropanoid-utilizing strain in a gnotobiotic system on the roots of flavonoid-producing plants leads to almost 90% removal of PCBs in a 28-d period [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Germ-Free Life


Biological context of Germ-Free Life

  • To investigate the underlying basis of autoimmunity, the particular role of commensal gut flora in the initiation of colitis, and the role of IL-2 in the development of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL), we evaluated IL-2(-/-) mice reared and maintained under gnotobiotic (germfree) conditions [16].
  • Involvement of nitrate reductase and pyoverdine in the competitiveness of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 was determined, under gnotobiotic conditions, in two soil compartments (bulk and rhizosphere soil), with the soil being kept at two different values of matric potential (-1 and -10 kPa) [17].
  • Antibody responses to human rotavirus (HRV) in gnotobiotic pigs following a new prime/boost vaccine strategy using oral attenuated HRV priming and intranasal VP2/6 rotavirus-like particle (VLP) boosting with ISCOM [18].
  • Although some formation of N-nitrosoproline from proline and nitrate occurred in germ-free and gnotobiotic rats, nitrosation proceeded more readily in conventional rats [19].
  • The laboratory strain of calf virus retained its virulence after being passaged seven times in gnotobiotic calves, which included sucrose density gradient purification on two occasions [20].

Anatomical context of Germ-Free Life

  • Enhanced immune responses, especially of the IgA isotype, in both serum and saliva were induced in gnotobiotic rats given MDP and either S. mutans 6715 WC or purified cell walls (CW) by gastric intubation [21].
  • The present study demonstrates that RSV-specific, major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T cells appear in the peripheral blood of gnotobiotic calves 7-10 days after infection with bovine RSV and were also detected in the lungs 10 days after infection [22].
  • 120 min after stomach intubation of gnotobiotic rats, only 31% of the ingested maltitol is found in the ileum [23].
  • 1. Conventional or gnotobiotic chicks, when injected from 1 d to 3 weeks of age with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (120IU/kg, three times weekly), showed a depressed growth rate, adrenal hypertrophy and depletion of cholesterol form the adrenal glands [24].

Associations of Germ-Free Life with chemical compounds

  • In gnotobiotic mice which were diassociated with C. difficile and C. butyricum and given drinking water with a lactose concentration of 20%, the cecal contents included about the same amount of butyric acid as did those of the monoassociated mice, although the population of C. difficile remained the same [25].
  • Gnotobiotic rats infected with S. mutans 6715 and fed a purified diet containing no sucrose (300) until day 25 and subsequently fed diet 305 for 10 days developed lesions similar to rats fed diet 305 for 16 days [26].
  • The effect of continuous administration of small doses of ampicillin, chlortetracycline, or streptomycin in the drinking water was studied in gnotobiotic mice inoculated with a human fecal flora [27].
  • Control pigs, eight conventional and two gnotobiotic, dosed with diluent, uninfected cell material or left undosed failed to develop lesions also [28].
  • Conversion of amoscanate to a mutagenic metabolite in gnotobiotic mice implanted with Streptococcus equinus [29].

Gene context of Germ-Free Life

  • HS/R increased ileal mucosal IL-6 and COX-2 mRNA expression in conventional but not gnotobiotic mice [30].
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains that express Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 alone are more neurotropic for gnotobiotic piglets than are isotypes producing only Stx1 or both Stx1 and Stx2 [31].
  • Colonization with a pure culture of C. albicans was not lethal for adult or neonatal IFN-gamma(-/-) gnotobiotic mice over the 15-week study [32].
  • Both counts of EHEC O157:H7 and the amounts of shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) in fecal contents of gnotobiotic mice di-associated with EHEC O157:H7 and C. butyricum were less than those of gnotobiotic mice mono-associated with EHEC O157:H7 [33].
  • In the gnotobiotic rat model, the gbpA mutant strain was hypercariogenic though the colonization levels were not significantly different from those of the wild type [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Germ-Free Life


  1. Bacteroides vulgatus protects against Escherichia coli-induced colitis in gnotobiotic interleukin-2-deficient mice. Waidmann, M., Bechtold, O., Frick, J.S., Lehr, H.A., Schubert, S., Dobrindt, U., Loeffler, J., Bohn, E., Autenrieth, I.B. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. A molecular sensor that allows a gut commensal to control its nutrient foundation in a competitive ecosystem. Hooper, L.V., Xu, J., Falk, P.G., Midtvedt, T., Gordon, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of 2-nitrofluorene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, and azoxymethane on Salmonella typhimurium mutants in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats. Carter, J.H., McLafferty, M.A., Goldman, P. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Enterococcus faecalis induces inflammatory bowel disease in interleukin-10 knockout mice. Balish, E., Warner, T. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Lactose tolerance in lambs with rotavirus diarrhoea. Ferguson, A., Paul, G., Snodgrass, D.R. Gut (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of intestinal microbial bile salt sulfatase activity on bile salt kinetics in gnotobiotic rats. Robben, J., Caenepeel, P., Van Eldere, J., Eyssen, H. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Global control in Pseudomonas fluorescens mediating antibiotic synthesis and suppression of black root rot of tobacco. Laville, J., Voisard, C., Keel, C., Maurhofer, M., Défago, G., Haas, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The influenza resistance murine Mx1 gene is constitutively expressed in the epithelia of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and uterine tracts. Chang, K.C., Gerlach, G., Fernandes, K., Lida, J., Goldspink, G. J. Cell. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Viremia and nasal and rectal shedding of rotavirus in gnotobiotic pigs inoculated with Wa human rotavirus. Azevedo, M.S., Yuan, L., Jeong, K.I., Gonzalez, A., Nguyen, T.V., Pouly, S., Gochnauer, M., Zhang, W., Azevedo, A., Saif, L.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhancement of plant-microbe interactions using a rhizosphere metabolomics-driven approach and its application in the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls. Narasimhan, K., Basheer, C., Bajic, V.B., Swarup, S. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Probiotics and safety. Ishibashi, N., Yamazaki, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Low sucrose levels promote extensive Streptococcus mutans-induced dental caries. Michalek, S.M., McGhee, J.R., Shiota, T., Devenyns, D. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Impaired colonization of gnotobiotic and conventional rats by streptomycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus mutans. Bammann, L.L., Clark, W.B., Gibbons, R.J. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a calici-like virus (Newbury agent) found in association with astrovirus in bovine diarrhea. Bridger, J.C., Hall, G.A., Brown, J.F. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Immune response of athymic and euthymic germfree mice to Campylobacter spp. Yrios, J.W., Balish, E. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Lymphoid hyperplasia, autoimmunity, and compromised intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte development in colitis-free gnotobiotic IL-2-deficient mice. Contractor, N.V., Bassiri, H., Reya, T., Park, A.Y., Baumgart, D.C., Wasik, M.A., Emerson, S.G., Carding, S.R. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Involvement of nitrate reductase and pyoverdine in competitiveness of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain C7R12 in soil. Mirleau, P., Philippot, L., Corberand, T., Lemanceau, P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Antibody responses to human rotavirus (HRV) in gnotobiotic pigs following a new prime/boost vaccine strategy using oral attenuated HRV priming and intranasal VP2/6 rotavirus-like particle (VLP) boosting with ISCOM. González, A.M., Nguyen, T.V., Azevedo, M.S., Jeong, K., Agarib, F., Iosef, C., Chang, K., Lovgren-Bengtsson, K., Morein, B., Saif, L.J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Nitrate reduction, gastro-intestinal pH and N-nitrosation in gnotobiotic and conventional rats. Ward, F.W., Coates, M.E., Walker, R. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Pathogenic rotaviruses isolated from pigs and calves. Woode, G.N. Ciba Found. Symp. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Effective immunity to dental caries: enhancement of salivary anti-Streptococcus mutans antibody responses with oral adjuvants. Morisaki, I., Michalek, S.M., Harmon, C.C., Torii, M., Hamada, S., McGhee, J.R. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Primary cytotoxic T-cell responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in calves. Gaddum, R.M., Cook, R.S., Thomas, L.H., Taylor, G. Immunology (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Digestion of maltitol in man, rat, and rabbit. Zunft, H.J., Schulze, J., Gärtner, H., Grütte, F.K. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Dietary aureomycin and the response of the fowl to stressors. Freeman, B.M., Manning, A.C., Harrison, G.F., Coates, M.E. Br. Poult. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of volatile fatty acids in colonization resistance to Clostridium difficile in gnotobiotic mice. Su, W.J., Waechter, M.J., Bourlioux, P., Dolegeal, M., Fourniat, J., Mahuzier, G. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Virulence of Streptococcus mutans: a sensitive method for evaluating cariogenicity in young gnotobiotic rats. Michalek, S.M., McGhee, J.R., Navia, J.M. Infect. Immun. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Antibiotic residues and drug resistance in human intestinal flora. Corpet, D.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Reproduction of porcine proliferative enteropathy with pure cultures of ileal symbiont intracellularis. McOrist, S., Jasni, S., Mackie, R.A., MacIntyre, N., Neef, N., Lawson, G.H. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Conversion of amoscanate to a mutagenic metabolite in gnotobiotic mice implanted with Streptococcus equinus. Reddy, B.S., Batzinger, R.P., Molineaux, C.J., Bueding, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of hemorrhagic shock on gut barrier function and expression of stress-related genes in normal and gnotobiotic mice. Yang, R., Gallo, D.J., Baust, J.J., Watkins, S.K., Delude, R.L., Fink, M.P. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains that express Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 alone are more neurotropic for gnotobiotic piglets than are isotypes producing only Stx1 or both Stx1 and Stx2. Donohue-Rolfe, A., Kondova, I., Oswald, S., Hutto, D., Tzipori, S. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Candidiasis in interferon-gamma knockout (IFN-gamma-/-) mice. Balish, E., Wagner, R.D., Vázquez-Torres, A., Pierson, C., Warner, T. J. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of probiotic treatment with Clostridium butyricum on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in mice. Takahashi, M., Taguchi, H., Yamaguchi, H., Osaki, T., Komatsu, A., Kamiya, S. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Inactivation of the gbpA gene of Streptococcus mutans increases virulence and promotes in vivo accumulation of recombinations between the glucosyltransferase B and C genes. Hazlett, K.R., Michalek, S.M., Banas, J.A. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of roxithromycin on fecal bacteria in human volunteers and resistance to colonization in gnotobiotic mice. Pecquet, S., Chachaty, E., Tancrède, C., Andremont, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Necessity of a more standardized microbiological characterization of rodents for aging studies. Sebesteny, A. Neurobiol. Aging (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid on human fecal flora in a gnotobiotic mouse model assessed with fluorescence hybridization using group-specific 16S rRNA probes in combination with flow cytometry. Barc, M.C., Bourlioux, F., Rigottier-Gois, L., Charrin-Sarnel, C., Janoir, C., Boureau, H., Doré, J., Collignon, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model. Aiba, Y., Suzuki, N., Kabir, A.M., Takagi, A., Koga, Y. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Measurement of fecal bile acid excretion in gnotobiotic rats: comparison of gas-liquid chromatography and [4(-14C)] cholesterol isotopic equilibrium. Sacquet, E., Leprince, C., Riottot, M., Mejean, C., Raibaud, P. Steroids (1978) [Pubmed]
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