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MeSH Review

Air Pollution

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Disease relevance of Air Pollution


Psychiatry related information on Air Pollution

  • Non-occupational factors associated with these include age, sex, race, smoking, social class, alcohol consumption, diet, exposures in leisure time, exercise, atopy, heredity, personal hygiene, personality type, stress, past or predisposing illness or injury, weather/climate and air pollution [6].

High impact information on Air Pollution


Chemical compound and disease context of Air Pollution

  • In a previous study at this Institute, inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO2) was shown to enhance the induction by inhaled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) of squamous cell carcinoma (SQCA) of the respiratory tract of rats (S. Laskin, M. Kuschner, A. Sellakumar, and G. V. Katz, 1976, In "Air Pollution and the Lung," pp. 190-213) [12].

Biological context of Air Pollution


Anatomical context of Air Pollution

  • These include pulmonary function decrements, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, visits to emergency departments, hospital admissions, increased medication use and symptom reporting, inflammatory changes, interactions between air pollution and allergen challenges, and immune system changes [18].
  • The ISR reveals that calf lung surfactant, Infasurf, exhibits remarkable fluidity, even when exposed to air pollution residual oil fly ash (ROFA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or conditioned media from resting A549 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) [19].
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major proinflammatory glycolipid component of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall, is one of the agents ubiquitously present as contaminant on airborne particles, including air pollution, organic dusts, and cigarette smoke [20].
  • Thus, metals and transition metals could increase the level of allergen-mediated mast cell activation, which might be one of the mechanisms mediating exacerbation of allergen-driven asthma symptoms by air pollution [21].
  • At the start of the pollen season, the NAL concentration of eosinophils and ECP in pollen-sensitised children was increased compared to winter, but their levels were not further affected by increased exposure to pollen or air pollution [22].

Associations of Air Pollution with chemical compounds

  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between daily ambient air pollution levels (particle number concentration [PNC]--a proxy for ultrafine particles [diameter < 0.1 microm], mass of particles with diameter less than 10 microm [PM10]; CO, NO2, and O3) and the occurrence of fatal, nonhospitalized coronary events [23].
  • Air pollution measurements (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and ozone) and meteorologic data were collected in each community [24].
  • To help assess short-term respiratory responses to summertime air pollution, we exposed 24 asthmatic volunteers aged 11-18 in a chamber to respirable acid aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter 0.66 micron) plus 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plus 0.2 ppm ozone (O3) [25].
  • METHODS: Routine air pollution monitoring data for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10) were used [26].
  • Air pollution studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous free radical, is a potent photosynthetic inhibitor that reduces CO2 uptake activity in leaves [27].

Gene context of Air Pollution

  • Circulating levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and GM-CSF were elevated in subjects exposed to high levels of PM(10) during an episode of acute air pollution [28].
  • The results of this study support TNF as a genetic factor for susceptibility to ozone-induced changes in lung function in humans, and has potential implications for stratifying health risks of air pollution [29].
  • Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), an inflammatory mediator, and accumulation of the 42-amino acid form of beta-amyloid (Abeta42), a cause of neuronal dysfunction, were measured in autopsy brain tissues of cognitively and neurologically intact lifelong residents of cities having low (n:9) or high (n:10) levels of air pollution [30].
  • The results of this study suggest that adhesion molecules or chemokines are associated with asthma and that ICAM-1 may play an important role in the relationship between air pollution and the occurrence of asthma [31].
  • Inhalation of urban particles results in higher circulating levels of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1), which may account for the adverse cardiovascular impacts associated with air pollution [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Air Pollution


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  19. Lung surfactant gelation induced by epithelial cells exposed to air pollution or oxidative stress. Anseth, J.W., Goffin, A.J., Fuller, G.G., Ghio, A.J., Kao, P.N., Upadhyay, D. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Long-term intratracheal lipopolysaccharide exposure in mice results in chronic lung inflammation and persistent pathology. Vernooy, J.H., Dentener, M.A., van Suylen, R.J., Buurman, W.A., Wouters, E.F. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Environmentally relevant metal and transition metal ions enhance Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell activation. Walczak-Drzewiecka, A., Wyczólkowska, J., Dastych, J. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Acute effect of air pollution on respiratory complaints, exhaled NO and biomarkers in nasal lavages of allergic children during the pollen season. Steerenberg, P.A., Bischoff, E.W., de Klerk, A., Verlaan, A.P., Jongbloets, L.M., van Loveren, H., Opperhuizen, A., Zomer, G., Heisterkamp, S.H., Hady, M., Spieksma, F.T., Fischer, P.H., Dormans, J.A., van Amsterdam, J.G. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. A case-crossover analysis of out-of-hospital coronary deaths and air pollution in Rome, Italy. Forastiere, F., Stafoggia, M., Picciotto, S., Bellander, T., D'Ippoliti, D., Lanki, T., von Klot, S., Nyberg, F., Paatero, P., Peters, A., Pekkanen, J., Sunyer, J., Perucci, C.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Respiratory health and long-term exposure to air pollutants in Swiss schoolchildren. SCARPOL Team. Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution, Climate and Pollen. Braun-Fahrländer, C., Vuille, J.C., Sennhauser, F.H., Neu, U., Künzle, T., Grize, L., Gassner, M., Minder, C., Schindler, C., Varonier, H.S., Wüthrich, B. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Controlled exposures of young asthmatics to mixed oxidant gases and acid aerosol. Linn, W.S., Anderson, K.R., Shamoo, D.A., Edwards, S.A., Webb, T.L., Hackney, J.D., Gong, H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
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  29. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms and ozone-induced change in lung function. Yang, I.A., Holz, O., Jörres, R.A., Magnussen, H., Barton, S.J., Rodríguez, S., Cakebread, J.A., Holloway, J.W., Holgate, S.T. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Brain inflammation and Alzheimer's-like pathology in individuals exposed to severe air pollution. Calderón-Garcidueñas, L., Reed, W., Maronpot, R.R., Henríquez-Roldán, C., Delgado-Chavez, R., Calderón-Garcidueñas, A., Dragustinovis, I., Franco-Lira, M., Aragón-Flores, M., Solt, A.C., Altenburg, M., Torres-Jardón, R., Swenberg, J.A. Toxicologic pathology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  32. Effects of ambient air particles on the endothelin system in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Chauhan, V., Breznan, D., Thomson, E., Karthikeyan, S., Vincent, R. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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