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Gene Review

GNAO1  -  guanine nucleotide binding protein (G...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EIEE17, G-ALPHA-o, GNAO, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha
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Disease relevance of GNAO1

  • Pertussis toxin (PTX)-activated ADP-ribosylations of G alpha i and G alpha o were enhanced by approximately 80% in membranes from bipolar compared with control brains, suggesting an increase in the levels of the trimeric state of these G proteins in bipolar disorder [1].
  • No difference in G alpha o mRNA levels or in the relative expression of G alpha s between bromocriptine sensitive and bromocriptine resistant prolactinomas was observed [2].

High impact information on GNAO1

  • Immunoblot analyses showed increases in the levels of membrane 45- and 52-kDa G alpha S proteins but no changes in the amounts of G alpha i, G alpha o, G alpha Z, G alpha q/11, or G beta proteins in membrane or cytosol fractions of bipolar brain homogenates [1].
  • Serotonin-induced, magnesium-dependent reduction in PTX-mediated ADP-ribosylation of G alpha i/G alpha o in cortical membranes from bipolar brains was greater than that observed in controls, providing further evidence for enhanced receptor-G protein coupling in bipolar brain membranes [1].
  • In subjects aged 19 to 100 y, decreased levels of G alpha q and G alpha o were significantly correlated with increased age, but levels of the other G-protein subunits did not vary [3].
  • Cell membranes contain two pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-subunits (G alpha) whose Rf values in gel electrophoresis coincide with those of G alpha o and G alpha i2 [4].
  • The expression of the neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 gene (NPY1R localized at 4q31.3-q32) and the human guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein Go-alpha (GNAO1 localized at 16q13) was significantly decreased in individuals with schizophrenia compared to unaffected family controls by microarray and real-time PCR [5].

Biological context of GNAO1


Anatomical context of GNAO1


Other interactions of GNAO1

  • Direct analysis of the genes encoding G proteins G alpha T2, G alpha o, G alpha Z in ADHD [9].
  • In the same brains, similar negative, although non-significant, correlations were found between the levels of PKC-alpha beta and those of G alpha o, G alpha s and G beta [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GNAO1

  • An ELISA assay using selective antibodies was used to measure [35S]GTP gamma S binding to G alpha o and G alpha i1 [3].
  • In contrast, microinjection of nonimmune IgG or an antibody directed against the C terminus of G alpha o did not reduce the mitogenic response to thrombin [11].


  1. Receptor-mediated activation of G proteins is increased in postmortem brains of bipolar affective disorder subjects. Friedman, E., Wang, H.Y. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Alteration of G alpha subunits mRNA levels in bromocriptine resistant prolactinomas. Caccavelli, L., Morange-Ramos, I., Kordon, C., Jaquet, P., Enjalbert, A. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of postmortem interval, age, and Alzheimer's disease on G-proteins in human brain. Li, X., Greenwood, A.F., Powers, R., Jope, R.S. Neurobiol. Aging (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Chronic exposure of NG 108-15 cells to opiate agonists does not alter the amount of the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins Gi and Go. Lang, J., Costa, T. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Microarray screening of lymphocyte gene expression differences in a multiplex schizophrenia pedigree. Vawter, M.P., Ferran, E., Galke, B., Cooper, K., Bunney, W.E., Byerley, W. Schizophr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Exocytosis in single chromaffin cells: regulation by a secretory granule-associated Go protein. Vitale, N., Gonon, F., Thiersé, D., Aunis, D., Bader, M.F. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Inactivation of the G alpha i2 and G alpha o genes by homologous recombination. Jiang, M., Boulay, G., Spicher, K., Peyton, M.J., Brabet, P., Birnbaumer, L., Rudolph, U. Recept. Channels (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of G proteins in human placentas from pregnancies complicated by gestational hypertension. Petit, A., Geoffroy, P., Bélisle, S. Life Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Direct analysis of the genes encoding G proteins G alpha T2, G alpha o, G alpha Z in ADHD. Turic, D., Langley, K., Kirov, G., Owen, M.J., Thapar, A., O'Donovan, M.C. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Age-dependent increases in protein kinase C-alpha beta immunoreactivity and activity in the human brain: possible in vivo modulatory effects on guanine nucleotide regulatory G(i) proteins. Busquets, X., Ventayol, P., Sastre, M., García-Sevilla, J.A. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. G12 requirement for thrombin-stimulated gene expression and DNA synthesis in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Aragay, A.M., Collins, L.R., Post, G.R., Watson, A.J., Feramisco, J.R., Brown, J.H., Simon, M.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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