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Gene Review

Grn  -  granulin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Granulins
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Disease relevance of Grn

  • By the cDNA subtraction between cDNA preparations from androgenized and intact neonate rats hypothalami, granulin/ epithelin (grn) gene was identified as a gene enriched by androgenization [1].
  • To this end, an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) of the grn precursor gene was designed, incorporated into inactivated Sendai virus (HVJ)-liposome complexes, and infused into the third ventricle of 2-day-old male rats [2].

Psychiatry related information on Grn


High impact information on Grn

  • The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence, tissue distribution, and cellular localization of the rat granulin precursor [4].
  • The present results suggest that the grn gene, the expression of which is induced by sex steroids in the neonatal hypothalamus, plays a crucial role in the functional masculinization of the rat brain [3].
  • Exogenous estrogen, as well as androgen, induced grn gene expression in the neonatal hypothalamus [3].
  • After maturation, the subject animals that were treated with antisense ODN of grn displayed significantly lower scores than the control males in various parameters assessing sexual behavior, i.e., mount, intromission, and ejaculation [3].
  • Following the cDNA subtraction between hypothalami of 5-day-old intact and neonatally androgenized female rats, a granulin (grn) precursor gene was identified [3].

Biological context of Grn


Anatomical context of Grn

  • We present the sequence of one member of this family, a 56 residue peptide, granulin A, and amino-terminal sequences for three other granulins from human peripheral leukocytes [7].
  • A fifth related peptide was isolated and partially sequenced from rat bone marrow, suggesting that at least some of the granulin in peripheral leukocytes is preformed in the marrow [7].
  • Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) complementary to grn mRNA was synthesized and infused into the third ventricle of male rats at 2 days of age [3].
  • Strong grn mRNA signals were detected by in situ hybridization in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus of a 5-day-old male [1].
  • The grn gene encodes a 6-kDa polypeptide known as a growth modulating factor of epithelial cells in vitro [3].

Associations of Grn with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grn


  1. Identification of a sex steroid-inducible gene in the neonatal rat hypothalamus. Suzuki, M., Yoshida, S., Nishihara, M., Takahashi, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of copulatory behavior by intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of granulin in neonatal male rats. Suzuki, M., Bannai, M., Matsumuro, M., Furuhata, Y., Ikemura, R., Kuranaga, E., Kaneda, Y., Nishihara, M., Takahashi, M. Physiol. Behav. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Granulin precursor gene: a sex steroid-inducible gene involved in sexual differentiation of the rat brain. Suzuki, M., Nishiahara, M. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence, tissue distribution, and cellular localization of the rat granulin precursor. Bhandari, V., Giaid, A., Bateman, A. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of granulin precursor gene expression by estrogen treatment in neonatal rat hypothalamus. Suzuki, M., Yonezawa, T., Fujioka, H., Matuamuro, M., Nishihara, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Cellular localization of gene expression for progranulin. Daniel, R., He, Z., Carmichael, K.P., Halper, J., Bateman, A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Granulins, a novel class of peptide from leukocytes. Bateman, A., Belcourt, D., Bennett, H., Lazure, C., Solomon, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
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