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Gene Review

Grn  -  granulin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Granulins, PC cell-derived growth factor, PCDGF, PEPI, Pgrn, ...
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Disease relevance of Grn


High impact information on Grn


Chemical compound and disease context of Grn


Biological context of Grn


Anatomical context of Grn

  • The malignancy of highly tumorigenic progranulin-expressing cell lines depends on the expression level of the pgrn gene since attenuating pgrn mRNA levels in pgrn-responsive cells greatly inhibits tumor progression [1].
  • The present results indicate that PCDGF is a potential precursor for epithelin and/or granulin, that this 88-kDa protein is secreted and glycosylated, and that it can function as a mitogen for 3T3 cells as well as an autocrine growth factor for PC cells [9].
  • Effects of progranulin on blastocyst hatching and subsequent adhesion and outgrowth in the mouse [13].
  • Progranulin was localized exclusively to the surface of the trophectoderm in early and pre- and postadhesion blastocysts as well as in trophoblast cells and ICM of outgrowth embryos, being secreted as a single, 88-kDa form into the surrounding medium [13].
  • We report that in murine transcutaneous puncture wounds, progranulin mRNA is expressed in the inflammatory infiltrate and is highly induced in dermal fibroblasts and endothelia following injury [6].

Associations of Grn with chemical compounds

  • Digestion with peptide-N-glycosidase F yielded an apparent 68-kDa protein component indicating that PCDGF is a glycoprotein containing about 20 kDa of carbohydrate [9].
  • Partial sequence from Edman degradation of peptide fragments obtained by digestion of PCDGF with cyanogen bromide and trypsin demonstrates that PCDGF contains regions of sequence identity to that deduced from the granulin or epithelin precursor cDNAs [9].
  • Studies of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and immunodissection of the ICM revealed that progranulin was effective on the trophectoderm but not on the ICM [13].
  • We show that 17-beta-estradiol stimulates PCDGF mRNA and protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner [8].
  • 125I-PCDGF was chemically crosslinked to cell surface receptors on CCL64 cells with disuccinimidyl suberate [14].

Other interactions of Grn


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grn


  1. Progranulin (granulin-epithelin precursor, PC-cell-derived growth factor, acrogranin) mediates tissue repair and tumorigenesis. He, Z., Bateman, A. J. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Oncogenic property of acrogranin in human uterine leiomyosarcoma: direct evidence of genetic contribution in in vivo tumorigenesis. Matsumura, N., Mandai, M., Miyanishi, M., Fukuhara, K., Baba, T., Higuchi, T., Kariya, M., Takakura, K., Fujii, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. PC cell-derived growth factor mediates tamoxifen resistance and promotes tumor growth of human breast cancer cells. Tangkeangsirisin, W., Hayashi, J., Serrero, G. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Progranulin (PC-cell-derived growth factor/acrogranin) regulates invasion and cell survival. He, Z., Ismail, A., Kriazhev, L., Sadvakassova, G., Bateman, A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. PC cell-derived growth factor confers resistance to dexamethasone and promotes tumorigenesis in human multiple myeloma. Wang, W., Hayashi, J., Serrero, G. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Progranulin is a mediator of the wound response. He, Z., Ong, C.H., Halper, J., Bateman, A. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Progranulin gene expression regulates epithelial cell growth and promotes tumor growth in vivo. He, Z., Bateman, A. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of PC cell-derived growth factor (epithelin/granulin precursor) expression by estradiol in human breast cancer cells. Lu, R., Serrero, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification of an autocrine growth factor homologous with mouse epithelin precursor from a highly tumorigenic cell line. Zhou, J., Gao, G., Crabb, J.W., Serrero, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulation of mouse preimplantation embryo development by acrogranin (epithelin/granulin precursor). Díaz-Cueto, L., Stein, P., Jacobs, A., Schultz, R.M., Gerton, G.L. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. Daniel, R., Daniels, E., He, Z., Bateman, A. Dev. Dyn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Exon/intron organization of the gene encoding the mouse epithelin/granulin precursor (acrogranin). Baba, T., Nemoto, H., Watanabe, K., Arai, Y., Gerton, G.L. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of progranulin on blastocyst hatching and subsequent adhesion and outgrowth in the mouse. Qin, J., Díaz-Cueto, L., Schwarze, J.E., Takahashi, Y., Imai, M., Isuzugawa, K., Yamamoto, S., Chang, K.T., Gerton, G.L., Imakawa, K. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of cell surface binding sites for PC-cell-derived growth factor, PCDGF, (epithelin/granulin precursor) on epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Xia, X., Serrero, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. The granulin/epithelin precursor abrogates the requirement for the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor for growth in vitro. Xu, S.Q., Tang, D., Chamberlain, S., Pronk, G., Masiarz, F.R., Kaur, S., Prisco, M., Zanocco-Marani, T., Baserga, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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