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MeSH Review

Arcuate Nucleus

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Disease relevance of Arcuate Nucleus


Psychiatry related information on Arcuate Nucleus


High impact information on Arcuate Nucleus


Chemical compound and disease context of Arcuate Nucleus


Biological context of Arcuate Nucleus


Anatomical context of Arcuate Nucleus


Associations of Arcuate Nucleus with chemical compounds


Gene context of Arcuate Nucleus

  • Systemic administration of CNTF or leptin led to rapid induction of the tis-11 primary response gene in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting that both cytokines can signal to hypothalamic satiety centers [33].
  • This melanocortin receptor (MC3-R) is found in neurons of the arcuate nucleus known to express proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and in a subset of the nuclei to which these neurons send projections [28].
  • After a 2-day fast, the number of arcuate nucleus neurons with NPY mRNA increased 50% (P < 0.05); the number of these that coexpressed Ob-Rb increased twofold (P = 0.013) [34].
  • In wild-type mice (n = 12), fasting for 48 h lowered POMC mRNA levels in the rostral arcuate nucleus by 53%, relative to values in fed controls (n = 8; P < 0.001) [35].
  • CNTF and LPS induced gene expression in circumventricular organs; ependymal cells of the ventricles, meninges, and choroid plexus; and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arcuate Nucleus


  1. Neuropeptide Y-mediated inhibition of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus shows enhanced desensitization in ob/ob mice. Roseberry, A.G., Liu, H., Jackson, A.C., Cai, X., Friedman, J.M. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in a primate model of menopause. Abel, T.W., Voytko, M.L., Rance, N.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Serotonergic brainstem abnormalities in Northern Plains Indians with the sudden infant death syndrome. Kinney, H.C., Randall, L.L., Sleeper, L.A., Willinger, M., Belliveau, R.A., Zec, N., Rava, L.A., Dominici, L., Iyasu, S., Randall, B., Habbe, D., Wilson, H., Mandell, F., McClain, M., Welty, T.K. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased melanin concentrating hormone receptor type I in the human hypothalamic infundibular nucleus in cachexia. Unmehopa, U.A., van Heerikhuize, J.J., Spijkstra, W., Woods, J.W., Howard, A.D., Zycband, E., Feighner, S.D., Hreniuk, D.L., Palyha, O.C., Guan, X.M., Macneil, D.J., Van der Ploeg, L.H., Swaab, D.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Growth hormone-releasing hormone transcripts in human pituitary adenomas. Levy, A., Lightman, S.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide's central inhibition of feeding and peripheral inhibition of drinking are abolished by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment. Tang-Christensen, M., Vrang, N., Larsen, P.J. Diabetes (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Changes in estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta in the infundibular nucleus of the human hypothalamus are related to the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Hestiantoro, A., Swaab, D.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional regulation of agouti-related protein (Agrp) in transgenic mice. Kaelin, C.B., Xu, A.W., Lu, X.Y., Barsh, G.S. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Specific inhibition of endogenous neuropeptide Y synthesis in arcuate nucleus by antisense oligonucleotides suppresses feeding behavior and insulin secretion. Akabayashi, A., Wahlestedt, C., Alexander, J.T., Leibowitz, S.F. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on somatostatin and growth hormone-releasing hormone gene expression in the rat hypothalamus. Toppila, J., Asikainen, M., Alanko, L., Turek, F.W., Stenberg, D., Porkka-Heiskanen, T. Journal of sleep research. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Gut hormone PYY(3-36) physiologically inhibits food intake. Batterham, R.L., Cowley, M.A., Small, C.J., Herzog, H., Cohen, M.A., Dakin, C.L., Wren, A.M., Brynes, A.E., Low, M.J., Ghatei, M.A., Cone, R.D., Bloom, S.R. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Cowley, M.A., Smart, J.L., Rubinstein, M., Cerdán, M.G., Diano, S., Horvath, T.L., Cone, R.D., Low, M.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Specific depletion of immunoreactive growth hormone-releasing factor by monosodium glutamate in rat median eminence. Bloch, B., Ling, N., Benoit, R., Wehrenberg, W.B., Guillemin, R. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Virus-assisted mapping of neural inputs to a feeding center in the hypothalamus. DeFalco, J., Tomishima, M., Liu, H., Zhao, C., Cai, X., Marth, J.D., Enquist, L., Friedman, J.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Seasonally inappropriate body weight induced by food restriction: effect on hypothalamic gene expression in male Siberian hamsters. Mercer, J.G., Moar, K.M., Logie, T.J., Findlay, P.A., Adam, C.L., Morgan, P.J. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Stereologic study of the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus in young and older women. Abel, T.W., Rance, N.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. MK-801 selectively protects mouse arcuate neurons in vivo against glutamate toxicity. Lehmann, A., Jönsson, T. Neuroreport (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Synaptic density in the arcuate nucleus of female rats approaching middle age. Moore, C.T., Leuschen, M.P. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of melanocortin in the long-term regulation of energy balance: lessons from a seasonal model. Schuhler, S., Ebling, F.J. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. Zigman, J.M., Nakano, Y., Coppari, R., Balthasar, N., Marcus, J.N., Lee, C.E., Jones, J.E., Deysher, A.E., Waxman, A.R., White, R.D., Williams, T.D., Lachey, J.L., Seeley, R.J., Lowell, B.B., Elmquist, J.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Gsh-1, an orphan Hox gene, is required for normal pituitary development. Li, H., Zeitler, P.S., Valerius, M.T., Small, K., Potter, S.S. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Excitatory versus inhibitory GABA as a divergence point in steroid-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain. Auger, A.P., Perrot-Sinal, T.S., McCarthy, M.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of neurotransmission in the arcuate nucleus of the rat by different neuropeptide Y receptors. Rhim, H., Kinney, G.A., Emmerson, P.J., Miller, R.J. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of postpartum rats. Hebb, M.O., Denovan-Wright, E.M., Robertson, H.A. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Neurotensin and neuroendocrine regulation. Rostène, W.H., Alexander, M.J. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Excitatory amino acids: function and significance in reproduction and neuroendocrine regulation. Brann, D.W., Mahesh, V.B. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Leptin activates hypothalamic CART neurons projecting to the spinal cord. Elias, C.F., Lee, C., Kelly, J., Aschkenasi, C., Ahima, R.S., Couceyro, P.R., Kuhar, M.J., Saper, C.B., Elmquist, J.K. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of a receptor for gamma melanotropin and other proopiomelanocortin peptides in the hypothalamus and limbic system. Roselli-Rehfuss, L., Mountjoy, K.G., Robbins, L.S., Mortrud, M.T., Low, M.J., Tatro, J.B., Entwistle, M.L., Simerly, R.B., Cone, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Diazepam binding inhibitor gene expression: location in brain and peripheral tissues of rat. Alho, H., Fremeau, R.T., Tiedge, H., Wilcox, J., Bovolin, P., Brosius, J., Roberts, J.L., Costa, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Angiotensin II AT1A receptor mRNA expression is induced by estrogen-progesterone in dopaminergic neurons of the female rat arcuate nucleus. Jöhren, O., Sanvitto, G.L., Egidy, G., Saavedra, J.M. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Galanin receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Kinney, G.A., Emmerson, P.J., Miller, R.J. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Neuropeptide Y depresses GABA-mediated calcium transients in developing suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons: a novel form of calcium long-term depression. Obrietan, K., van den Pol, A.N. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Ciliary neurotrophic factor corrects obesity and diabetes associated with leptin deficiency and resistance. Gloaguen, I., Costa, P., Demartis, A., Lazzaro, D., Di Marco, A., Graziani, R., Paonessa, G., Chen, F., Rosenblum, C.I., Van der Ploeg, L.H., Cortese, R., Ciliberto, G., Laufer, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Leptin receptor mRNA identifies a subpopulation of neuropeptide Y neurons activated by fasting in rat hypothalamus. Baskin, D.G., Breininger, J.F., Schwartz, M.W. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Leptin increases hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA expression in the rostral arcuate nucleus. Schwartz, M.W., Seeley, R.J., Woods, S.C., Weigle, D.S., Campfield, L.A., Burn, P., Baskin, D.G. Diabetes (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and leptin induce distinct patterns of immediate early gene expression in the brain. Kelly, J.F., Elias, C.F., Lee, C.E., Ahima, R.S., Seeley, R.J., Bjørbaek, C., Oka, T., Saper, C.B., Flier, J.S., Elmquist, J.K. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. The neuropeptide Y/agouti gene-related protein (AGRP) brain circuitry in normal, anorectic, and monosodium glutamate-treated mice. Broberger, C., Johansen, J., Johansson, C., Schalling, M., Hökfelt, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Serotonin mediated inhibition of episodic luteinizing hormone release during electrical stimulation of the arcuate nucleus in ovariectomized rats. Gallo, R.V., Moberg, G.P. Endocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  39. Roles of the arcuate nucleus and ovary in the maturation of growth hormone, prolactin, and nongranulated cells in the mouse adenohypophysis during postnatal development: a stereological morphometric study by electron microscopy. Sasaki, F., Sano, M. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  40. Testosterone regulates pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in the primate brain. Adams, L.A., Vician, L., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
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