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Gene Review

Bx  -  Beadex

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Bd, CG10548, CG15048, CG44425, CG6500, ...
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Disease relevance of Bx


High impact information on Bx

  • Here we report that transgenic expression of a dominant-active Drosophila Rho guanosine triphosphatase, Drac1, rescued photoreceptor morphogenesis in rhodopsin-null mutants; expression of dominant-negative Drac1 resulted in a phenotype similar to that seen in rhodopsin-null mutants [2].
  • Beadex encodes an LMO protein that regulates Apterous LIM-homeodomain activity in Drosophila wing development: a model for LMO oncogene function [3].
  • Phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases and interaction with Rho GTPases have been proposed as regulatory mechanisms [4].
  • Increasing evidence suggests that the Rho GTPases and their upstream positive regulators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), also play important roles in the control of growth cone guidance in the developing nervous system (Luo, L. 2000. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 1:173-180; Dickson, B.J. 2001. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 11:103-110) [5].
  • Nineteen of the Drosophila DNA fragments cloned correspond to one locus, termed Clone A, which is 312 bp in length and contains five vnd/NK-2 homeodomain core consensus binding sites, 5'-AAGTG, and is part of the first intron of the Beadex gene [6].

Biological context of Bx

  • This provides molecular grounds for the suppression of the Bx phenotype by hdp-a mutations [7].
  • Thus, since rhombotin lacks a DNA-binding homeodomain, this protein might belong to a new class of transcriptional regulators which modulate transcription via intermolecular competitive binding to the LIM domains of certain DNA-binding transcription factors [8].
  • Consistent with a role for Lmo in LN(v)function,Lmomutants also show defects in circadian rhythms of behavior [9].
  • In this mutant, deletion of sequences no more than 1,600 base pairs from the Beadex locus accompanies the loss of heldup-a function [1].
  • The Rho-kinases are widely utilized downstream targets of the activated Rho GTPase that have been directly implicated in many aspects of Rho-dependent effects on F-actin assembly, acto-myosin contractility, and microtubule stability, and consequently play an essential role in regulating cell shape, migration, polarity, and division [10].

Anatomical context of Bx

  • Previous work has shown that Cdc42 and Rac promote neurite outgrowth by a pathway that is antagonistic to Rho [11].
  • The small GTPase Rho is a molecular switch that is best known for its role in regulating the actomyosin cytoskeleton [12].
  • In the posterior spiracles of the fly embryo, this asymmetric activation is achieved by at least two mechanisms: the apical enrichment of Rho1; and the opposing distribution of Rho activators and inhibitors to distinct compartments of the cell membrane [13].
  • In the paradigm emerging from cultured fibroblasts, nonmuscle actomyosin-II contractility, mediated by the small GTPase Rho, is required to cluster integrins at focal adhesions [14].
  • The Beadex locus was highly mutable in these hybrids but did not mutate at all in the sample of gametes from the M X Q hybrids [15].

Associations of Bx with chemical compounds

  • We propose that Lmo controls the responsiveness of LN(v)s to cocaine, which in turn regulate the flies' behavioral sensitivity to the drug [9].
  • The Drosophila-expressed Rho associated with the 3-hydroxyretinal chromophore but failed to evoke an electroretinogram response from fly photoreceptors [16].

Other interactions of Bx

  • We report the cloning of a LIM-containing gene from Drosophila, termed Dlmo, which is highly homologous to the vertebrate LIM-only (LMO) genes [7].
  • The 3' untranslated (UTR) of Dlmo contains multiple motifs implicated in negative post-transcriptional regulation, including AT-rich elements and Brd-like boxes [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the light of our findings, we conclude that Rho GTPases/JNK cascades are not major effectors of planar polarity in the Drosophila eye [17].
  • Expression of Lmo in the principal Drosophila circadian pacemaker cells, the PDF-expressing ventral lateral neurons (LN(v)s), is sufficient to confer normal cocaine sensitivity [9].
  • Furthermore, Minute mutations that reduce the efficiency of protein synthesis and extend developmental time allow Beadex -related cell death to be compensated for by additional cell replacement or increased cell lifespan [18].


  1. Isolation and characterization of the Beadex locus of Drosophila melanogaster: a putative cis-acting negative regulatory element for the heldup-a gene. Mattox, W.W., Davidson, N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Rescue of photoreceptor degeneration in rhodopsin-null Drosophila mutants by activated Rac1. Chang, H.Y., Ready, D.F. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Beadex encodes an LMO protein that regulates Apterous LIM-homeodomain activity in Drosophila wing development: a model for LMO oncogene function. Milán, M., Diaz-Benjumea, F.J., Cohen, S.M. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Cellular functions of the Spir actin-nucleation factors. Kerkhoff, E. Trends Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. A novel Dbl family RhoGEF promotes Rho-dependent axon attraction to the central nervous system midline in Drosophila and overcomes Robo repulsion. Bashaw, G.J., Hu, H., Nobes, C.D., Goodman, C.S. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and analysis of vnd/NK-2 homeodomain binding sites in genomic DNA. Wang, L.H., Chmelik, R., Tang, D., Nirenberg, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Overexpression Beadex mutations and loss-of-function heldup-a mutations in Drosophila affect the 3' regulatory and coding components, respectively, of the Dlmo gene. Shoresh, M., Orgad, S., Shmueli, O., Werczberger, R., Gelbaum, D., Abiri, S., Segal, D. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. The rhombotin gene belongs to a class of transcriptional regulators with a potential novel protein dimerisation motif. Boehm, T., Foroni, L., Kennedy, M., Rabbitts, T.H. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Lmo mutants reveal a novel role for circadian pacemaker neurons in cocaine-induced behaviors. Tsai, L.T., Bainton, R.J., Blau, J., Heberlein, U. PLoS Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Drosophila Rho-kinase (DRok) is required for tissue morphogenesis in diverse compartments of the egg chamber during oogenesis. Verdier, V., Johndrow, J.E., Betson, M., Chen, G.C., Hughes, D.A., Parkhurst, S.M., Settleman, J. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. PAK5, a new brain-specific kinase, promotes neurite outgrowth in N1E-115 cells. Dan, C., Nath, N., Liberto, M., Minden, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Drosophila RhoA regulates the cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion in the developing epidermis. Bloor, J.W., Kiehart, D.P. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Compartmentalisation of Rho regulators directs cell invagination during tissue morphogenesis. Sim??es, S., Denholm, B., Azevedo, D., Sotillos, S., Martin, P., Skaer, H., Hombr??a, J.C., Jacinto, A. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. zipper Nonmuscle myosin-II functions downstream of PS2 integrin in Drosophila myogenesis and is necessary for myofibril formation. Bloor, J.W., Kiehart, D.P. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. A comparison of mutation rates for specific loci and chromosome regions in dysgenic hybrid males of Drosophila melanogaster. Simmons, M.J., Raymond, J.D., Johnson, N.A., Fahey, T.M. Genetics (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterologous expression of bovine rhodopsin in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Ahmad, S.T., Natochin, M., Barren, B., Artemyev, N.O., O'Tousa, J.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Asymmetric localization of frizzled and the determination of notch-dependent cell fate in the Drosophila eye. Strutt, D., Johnson, R., Cooper, K., Bray, S. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Modification of cell growth and longevity using an in vivo assay in Drosophila melanogaster. Thompson, J.N., Tucker, R.R., Spivey, W.E. Growth. (1984) [Pubmed]
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