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Gene Review

pilP  -  pilus assembly protein

Escherichia coli

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Disease relevance of pilP


High impact information on pilP


Biological context of pilP


Anatomical context of pilP

  • Overexpression of FimD(N) in the periplasm of wild-type E.coli cells diminished incorporation of FimH at the tip of type 1 pili, while pilus assembly itself was not affected [13].
  • Membranes of hosts carrying the F' mutation contained a full complement of mature F-pilin subunits, so the product of traC is presumably required for pilus assembly but not for pilin processing [14].
  • Heterologous expression of TraC in A. tumefaciens partly compensated for the pilus assembly defect in strains deficient for its homolog VirB5, which further supported its role in assembly of conjugative pili [15].

Associations of pilP with chemical compounds

  • A second amber mutant (JCFL25) which is not suppressible, carried its mutation in the codon for the single tryptophan in F pilin, suggesting that this residue is important in subunit interactions during pilus assembly [16].

Physical interactions of pilP

  • This, together with the deficiency in conjugal DNA transfer, suggests that traC may be part of a membrane-spanning tra protein complex responsible for pilus assembly and disassembly and conjugal DNA transmission [14].

Other interactions of pilP

  • A chimera containing the ColB2 pilin gene was able to complement an F traA mutant, demonstrating that the pilus assembly proteins of F can utilize the ColB2 pilin protein to form a pilus [17].
  • In this study, we confirm that CooD is required for the initiation of pilus assembly rather than for the stabilization of pili after they are assembled by demonstrating that specific modulation of cooD expression also modulates the number of CS1 pili on bacterial cells [18].
  • Complementation analysis employing plasmid deletions revealed a correlation between an N-terminal periplasmic segment of the protein product (TraGp) and its pilus assembly activity [19].


  1. X-ray structure of the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Choudhury, D., Thompson, A., Stojanoff, V., Langermann, S., Pinkner, J., Hultgren, S.J., Knight, S.D. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Conservation of genes encoding components of a type IV pilus assembly/two-step protein export pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Lauer, P., Albertson, N.H., Koomey, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutational analysis of F-pilin reveals domains for pilus assembly, phage infection and DNA transfer. Manchak, J., Anthony, K.G., Frost, L.S. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Multivariate design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of peptide inhibitors of FimC/FimH protein-protein interactions in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Larsson, A., Johansson, S.M., Pinkner, J.S., Hultgren, S.J., Almqvist, F., Kihlberg, J., Linusson, A. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a gene essential for piliation in Haemophilus influenzae type b with homology to the pilus assembly platform genes of gram-negative bacteria. Watson, W.J., Gilsdorf, J.R., Tucci, M.A., McCrea, K.W., Forney, L.J., Marrs, C.F. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural and functional characterization of the VirB5 protein from the type IV secretion system encoded by the conjugative plasmid pKM101. Yeo, H.J., Yuan, Q., Beck, M.R., Baron, C., Waksman, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. PilP, a pilus biogenesis lipoprotein in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, affects expression of PilQ as a high-molecular-mass multimer. Drake, S.L., Sandstedt, S.A., Koomey, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. PilC of Neisseria meningitidis is involved in class II pilus formation and restores pilus assembly, natural transformation competence and adherence to epithelial cells in PilC-deficient gonococci. Ryll, R.R., Rudel, T., Scheuerpflug, I., Barten, R., Meyer, T.F. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Epitopes fused to F-pilin are incorporated into functional recombinant pili. Rondot, S., Anthony, K.G., Dübel, S., Ida, N., Wiemann, S., Beyreuther, K., Frost, L.S., Little, M., Breitling, F. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Maturation of intracellular Escherichia coli communities requires SurA. Justice, S.S., Lauer, S.R., Hultgren, S.J., Hunstad, D.A. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The usher N terminus is the initial targeting site for chaperone-subunit complexes and participates in subsequent pilus biogenesis events. Ng, T.W., Akman, L., Osisami, M., Thanassi, D.G. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Products of three accessory genes, pilB, pilC, and pilD, are required for biogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili. Nunn, D., Bergman, S., Lory, S. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification and characterization of the chaperone-subunit complex-binding domain from the type 1 pilus assembly platform FimD. Nishiyama, M., Vetsch, M., Puorger, C., Jelesarov, I., Glockshuber, R. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A traC mutant that retains sensitivity to f1 bacteriophage but lacks F pili. Schandel, K.A., Maneewannakul, S., Ippen-Ihler, K., Webster, R.E. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. TraC of IncN plasmid pKM101 associates with membranes and extracellular high-molecular-weight structures in Escherichia coli. Schmidt-Eisenlohr, H., Domke, N., Baron, C. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. DNA sequence analysis of point mutations in traA, the F pilin gene, reveal two domains involved in F-specific bacteriophage attachment. Frost, L.S., Paranchych, W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Localization, cloning, and sequence determination of the conjugative plasmid ColB2 pilin gene. Finlay, B.B., Frost, L.S., Paranchych, W. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. The level of expression of the minor pilin subunit, CooD, determines the number of CS1 pili assembled on the cell surface of Escherichia coli. Sakellaris, H., Penumalli, V.R., Scott, J.R. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of the F plasmid bifunctional conjugation gene, traG. Firth, N., Skurray, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
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