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Gene Review

Hsp22  -  Heat shock protein 22

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 22, CG32041, CG4460, DmHsp22, Dmel\CG4460, ...
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Disease relevance of Hsp22


Psychiatry related information on Hsp22

  • Moreover, flies expressing Hsp22 in their motorneurons maintain their locomotor activity longer as assessed by a negative geotaxis assay [2].

High impact information on Hsp22


Biological context of Hsp22

  • These observations establish Hsp22 as a key player in cell-protection mechanisms against oxidative injuries and aging in Drosophila and corroborate the pivotal role of mitochondria in the process of aging [2].
  • By testing a series of 5' deletion mutants in hsp22/HSV-tk, a homologous sequence located adjacent to the TATA box in both the hsp22 and hsp26 genes was identified as being responsible for their heat-shock activation [7].
  • Unique coding sequences for four heat shock proteins of Drosophila melanogaster, hsp 28, hsp 26, hsp 23, and hsp 22, are clustered in a 12-kilobase interval at chromosome subdivision 67B [8].
  • Analysis of specific promoter mutations in transgenic flies indicated that functional heat shock response elements are required for hsp22 induction during aging [9].
  • To determine if hsp22 and hsp23 gene expression might correlate with life span, RNA levels for these and additional genes were analyzed throughout the adult life span in a set of five outbred "O" lines, which have been genetically selected for increased longevity, and in five matched control "B" lines [10].

Anatomical context of Hsp22

  • However other Hsps such as Hsp70 and Hsp22 were induced under heat-shock conditions in testes [11].
  • During aging, hsp22 RNA was induced 60-fold in the head, with somewhat lower level induction in abdomen and thorax [9].
  • HeLa cells containing the firefly luciferase (luc) reporter gene under the control of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp22 promoter were compared to liver cells (HepG2) containing the same stress gene promoter fused either to the luc or the EGFP (Enhanced-Green Fluorescent Protein) gene [12].

Associations of Hsp22 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Hsp22

  • The inhibition was highly specific: expression of the closely related heat shock proteins hsp22, hsp23, and hsp28 was unaffected [16].
  • The heat shock transcriptional factor of Drosophila (DmHSF), present in significantly lower amount in testes when compared to other tissues such as the head, was shown to be required for the heat activation of Hsp22 and Hsp70 [11].
  • The ability of Hsp90 mRNA to be preferentially translated is conferred by its 5'-UTR, but, in contrast to Hsp22 and -70, is primarily influenced by nucleotides close to the AUG initiation codon [17].
  • This heat-shock RNA has the same cap site as the embryonic transcript, while its 3' portion entirely includes the neighbouring hsp22 gene [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hsp22

  • Immunoprecipitation results indicate that there is no interaction between DmHsp22 and the other small heat shock proteins [19].
  • Fractionation of mitochondria indicates that DmHsp22 resides in the mitochondrial matrix, where it is found in oligomeric complexes, as shown by sedimentation and gel filtration analysis and by cross-linking experiments [19].
  • By using the chromatin immunoprecipitation, we located the HDI-induced H3 hyperacetylation at both the promoter and the downstream of RNA polymerase II of the transcribing hsp22 gene [14].


  1. Genes for Drosophila small heat shock proteins are regulated differently by ecdysterone. Amin, J., Mestril, R., Voellmy, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of the small mitochondrial Hsp22 extends Drosophila life span and increases resistance to oxidative stress. Morrow, G., Samson, M., Michaud, S., Tanguay, R.M. FASEB J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Translational and transcriptional control elements in the untranslated leader of the heat-shock gene hsp22. Hultmark, D., Klemenz, R., Gehring, W.J. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Muscle-specific expression of Drosophila hsp70 in response to aging and oxidative stress. Wheeler, J.C., Bieschke, E.T., Tower, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence requirement for expression of the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock protein hsp22 gene during heat shock and normal development. Klemenz, R., Gehring, W.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Decreased lifespan in the absence of expression of the mitochondrial small heat shock protein Hsp22 in Drosophila. Morrow, G., Battistini, S., Zhang, P., Tanguay, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequences responsible for the thermal inducibility of the Drosophila small heat-shock protein genes in monkey COS cells. Ayme, A., Southgate, R., Tissières, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Four heat shock proteins of Drosophila melanogaster coded within a 12-kilobase region in chromosome subdivision 67B. Corces, V., Holmgren, R., Freund, R., Morimoto, R., Meselson, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Aging-specific expression of Drosophila hsp22. King, V., Tower, J. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased hsp22 RNA levels in Drosophila lines genetically selected for increased longevity. Kurapati, R., Passananti, H.B., Rose, M.R., Tower, J. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell-specific expression and heat-shock induction of Hsps during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Michaud, S., Marin, R., Westwood, J.T., Tanguay, R.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram detection: comparison of bioluminescent and fluorescent whole-cell bioassays based on hsp22 stress promoter induction. Mandon, C.A., Diaz-Latoud, C., Arrigo, A.P., Blum, L.J. J. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Steroid and high-temperature induction of the small heat-shock protein genes in Drosophila. Vitek, M.P., Berger, E.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Histone acetylation regulates both transcription initiation and elongation of hsp22 gene in Drosophila. Zhao, Y., Lu, J., Sun, H., Chen, X., Huang, W., Tao, D., Huang, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Doxycycline-regulated over-expression of hsp22 has negative effects on stress resistance and life span in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Bhole, D., Allikian, M.J., Tower, J. Mech. Ageing Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of heat shock protein synthesis by heat-inducible antisense RNA. McGarry, T.J., Lindquist, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Translational regulation of Hsp90 mRNA. AUG-proximal 5'-untranslated region elements essential for preferential heat shock translation. Ahmed, R., Duncan, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. An unusual split Drosophila heat shock gene expressed during embryogenesis, pupation and in testis. Pauli, D., Tonka, C.H., Ayme-Southgate, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. The small heat shock protein Hsp22 of Drosophila melanogaster is a mitochondrial protein displaying oligomeric organization. Morrow, G., Inaguma, Y., Kato, K., Tanguay, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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