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Gene Review

h4-A  -  histone H4 protein

Xenopus laevis

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High impact information on h4-A


Biological context of h4-A


Anatomical context of h4-A


Associations of h4-A with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of h4-A

  • We found the conserved N termini (the N-terminal tails) of histone H4 essential to stimulate ISWI ATPase activity, in contrast to other histone tails [15].
  • The Y-box protein FRGY2 inhibits translation of histone H4 mRNA in vitro [6].

Other interactions of h4-A

  • We have shown that these proteins are indeed nuclear basic proteins: the 14 kd is the histone H4, the 19 kd is the histone H3, and the 25 kd is the sperm-specific protein SP2 [16].
  • Critical role for the histone H4 N terminus in nucleosome remodeling by ISWI [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of h4-A

  • They were located by in situ hybridization of a 3H-labelled histone H4 anti-sense cRNA probe applied to lampbrush preparations in which transcript RNA had been retained, and likewise to preparations in which transcripts were absent but whose DNA had been denatured prior to hybridization [17].
  • The amount of histone H4 mRNA per embryo was followed during early development of Xenopus laevis by Northern blot analyses using a cloned histone H4 cDNA as the probe [12].


  1. Assembly of transcriptionally active chromatin in Xenopus oocytes requires specific DNA binding factors. Gargiulo, G., Razvi, F., Worcel, A. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Methylation of histone H4 at arginine 3 facilitating transcriptional activation by nuclear hormone receptor. Wang, H., Huang, Z.Q., Xia, L., Feng, Q., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Strahl, B.D., Briggs, S.D., Allis, C.D., Wong, J., Tempst, P., Zhang, Y. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Histone H4 acetylation and transcription in amphibian chromatin. Sommerville, J., Baird, J., Turner, B.M. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Antisense oligonucleotide-directed cleavage of mRNA in Xenopus oocytes and eggs. Shuttleworth, J., Colman, A. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. A protein kinase from Xenopus eggs specific for ribosomal protein S6. Erikson, E., Maller, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulated unmasking of in vivo synthesized maternal mRNA at oocyte maturation. A role for the chaperone nucleoplasmin. Meric, F., Matsumoto, K., Wolffe, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcriptionally active Xenopus laevis somatic 5 S ribosomal RNA genes are packaged with hyperacetylated histone H4, whereas transcriptionally silent oocyte genes are not. Howe, L., Ranalli, T.A., Allis, C.D., Ausió, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. The histone H4 acetyltransferase MOF uses a C2HC zinc finger for substrate recognition. Akhtar, A., Becker, P.B. EMBO Rep. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Chromatin transitions during early Xenopus embryogenesis: changes in histone H4 acetylation and in linker histone type. Dimitrov, S., Almouzni, G., Dasso, M., Wolffe, A.P. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Histone deacetylase activity is necessary for chromosome condensation during meiotic maturation in Xenopus laevis. Magnaghi-Jaulin, L., Jaulin, C. Chromosome Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Histone gene expression in early development of Xenopus laevis. Analysis of histone mRNA in oocytes and embryos by blot-hybridization and cell-free translation. Van Dongen, W.M., Moorman, A.F., Destrée, O.H. Differentiation (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Level of histone H4 mRNA in Xenopus laevis embryonic cells cultured in the absence of cell adhesion. Atsuchi, Y., Tashiro, K., Yamana, K., Shiokawa, K. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The Testis-Specific Factor CTCFL Cooperates with the Protein Methyltransferase PRMT7 in H19 Imprinting Control Region Methylation. Jelinic, P., Stehle, J.C., Shaw, P. PLoS Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Metamorphic T3-response genes have specific co-regulator requirements. Havis, E., Sachs, L.M., Demeneix, B.A. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Critical role for the histone H4 N terminus in nucleosome remodeling by ISWI. Clapier, C.R., Längst, G., Corona, D.F., Becker, P.B., Nightingale, K.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Xenopus laevis sperm proteins, previously identified as surface proteins with egg coat binding capability, are indeed histone H4, histone H3, and sperm specific protein SP2. Bernardini, G., Donne, I.D., Norreri, S., Negri, A., Milzani, A. J. Exp. Zool. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Histone genes are located at the sphere loci of Xenopus lampbrush chromosomes. Callan, H.G., Gall, J.G., Murphy, C. Chromosoma (1991) [Pubmed]
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