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Gene Review

nucI  -  thermonuclease

Staphylococcus aureus RF122

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Disease relevance of nucI

  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin and thermonuclease production during induced bovine mastitis and the clinical reaction of enterotoxin in udders [1].
  • Production of staphylococcal alpha- or alpha-beta-toxins correlated well with production of coagulase or thermonuclease (or both) in 203 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk and should be reliable indicators of S. aureus in the absence of Staphylococcus intermedius [2].
  • An aliquot (0.1 ml) of the positive blood culture, which showed growth of gram-positive cocci and demonstrated thermonuclease activity, was inoculated into the module well of a Bactometer incubator (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.) containing 0.6 ml of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with oxacillin (2 microg/ml) [3].
  • These are enterotoxin B, leukotoxin D, enterotoxin, serin proteases (SplA and SplC), thermonuclease, an IgG binding protein and two so far unknown proteins in S. aureus with similarities to SceD precursor in Staphylococcus carnosus and to synergohymenotropic toxin precursor in Streptococcus intermedius [4].

High impact information on nucI


Chemical compound and disease context of nucI


Biological context of nucI


Anatomical context of nucI

  • Enterotoxigenicity correlated well with the following characteristics: pigment production, presence of the clumping factor, coagulation of rabbit plasma, haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, positivity in the STAPHYtest, fermentation of mannitol, strong haemolysis of bovine blood and strong thermonuclease activity [15].

Associations of nucI with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, strain FRI137 produced thermonuclease earlier and at lower cell populations than it did enterotoxin C1 [6].
  • Koupal-Deibel deoxyribonucleic acid agar was somewhat superior to toluidine blue deoxyribonucleic acid agar for thermonuclease assay of fermented sausage casings [16].
  • Bovine and caprine isolates were 34.1 and 25% thermonuclease-positive, respectively, while ovine isolates were only 14.2% thermonuclease-positive [17].
  • The widely promulgated interpretation that all degrees of clotting in coagulase plasma are a positive identification of S. auerus was disproved by the use of other tests such as anaerobic glucose fermentation, thermonuclease production, and lysostaphin sensitivity [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nucI


  1. Staphylococcal enterotoxin and thermonuclease production during induced bovine mastitis and the clinical reaction of enterotoxin in udders. Niskanen, A., Koranen, L., Roine, K. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Relationships among the results of coagulase, staphylococcal toxin, and thermonuclease tests on staphylococci from cow milk. Jasper, D.E., Infante, F., Dellinger, J.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Rapid detection of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in blood cultures by an impedance method. Wu, J.J., Huang, A.H., Dai, J.H., Chang, T.C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Extracellular proteins of Staphylococcus aureus and the role of SarA and sigma B. Ziebandt, A.K., Weber, H., Rudolph, J., Schmid, R., Höper, D., Engelmann, S., Hecker, M. Proteomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Nucleotide sequence of a nuc gene encoding the thermonuclease of Staphylococcus intermedius. Chesneau, O., el Solh, N. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins C1 and C2 and thermonuclease throughout the growth cycle. Otero, A., García, M.L., García, M.C., Moreno, B., Bergdoll, M.S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Evaluation of three commercial agglutination tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus. Pennell, D.R., Rott-Petri, J.A., Kurzynski, T.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the thermonuclease test. Shanholtzer, C.J., Peterson, L.R. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of three methods for the rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus in blood cultures. Skulnick, M., Simor, A.E., Patel, M.P., Simpson, H.E., O'Quinn, K.J., Low, D.E., Phillips, A.M., Small, G.W. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of Nepeta cataria extract on adherence and enzyme production of Staphylococcus aureus. Nostro, A., Cannatelli, M.A., Crisafi, G., Alonzo, V. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. A simple method for counting Staphylococcus aureus in swimming pool water. Mates, A., Schaffer, M. Microbios (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of starter culture on staphylococcal enterotoxin and thermonuclease production in dry sausage. Niskanen, A., Nurmi, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease. Brakstad, O.G., Maeland, J.A. APMIS (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Use of thermonuclease testing to identify Staphylococcus aureus by direct examination of blood cultures. Kaplan, N.M. Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Characteristics of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated at dairy farms. Růzicková, V. Veterinární medicína. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid detection of staphylococcal thermonuclease on casings of naturally contaminated fermented sausages. Emswiler-Rose, B.S., Johnston, R.W., Harris, M.E., Lee, W.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Reliability of thermonuclease production for the identification of human and animal Staphylococcus aureus. Adekeye, J.D. Vet. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Interpretation of the tube coagulase test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus. Sperber, W.H., Tatini, S.R. Applied microbiology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in dried skimmed milk: use of the polymerase chain reaction for amplification and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes entB and entC1 and the thermonuclease gene nuc. Wilson, I.G., Cooper, J.E., Gilmour, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus from blood culture bottles by a classic 2-hour tube coagulase test. McDonald, C.L., Chapin, K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Problems of thermonuclease detection for identifying Staphylococcus aureus in blood culture broths. Megson, G.M., Law, D., Ganguli, L.A. J. Clin. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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