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MeSH Review

Mammary Glands, Animal

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Disease relevance of Mammary Glands, Animal


High impact information on Mammary Glands, Animal

  • The release and vascular action of bradykinin in the isolated perfused bovine udder [6].
  • Thus, in addition to its secretion into milk, BK, together with its precursor and tissue kallikrein, is continuously released into the vasculature of the isolated, perfused, lactating bovine udder [6].
  • Recycling of glucose 6-phosphate in the udder accounted for about 25% of the glucose 6-phosphate metabolized [7].
  • 2. Glucose carbon was oxidized and metabolizet to milk lactose, citrate and triacylglycerol in the lactating goat udder [7].
  • This assertion is supported by studies of ovariectomized heifers, in which increased stromal IGFBP-3 and reduced IGF-I correspond with a failure of udder development [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Mammary Glands, Animal

  • Milk from cows with evidence of udder infection had higher sodium and chloride and lower potassium than cows free of mastitis [9].
  • A recently described new Staphylococcus aureus vaccine "MASTIVAC I" (Patent no. PTC/IL98/00627) against S. aureus udder infection elicited protection against experimentally induced infection in cows [10].
  • Post-dipping with chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide reduced incidence of udder infection by major mastitis pathogens 36.1% when data were combined from the two herds [11].
  • The effect of subclinical mastitis on the citric acid concentration of cow's milk was studied by comparing milk from the mastitic quarter with that from a healthy quarter of the same udder [12].
  • This study shows that Mycoplasma ovine/caprine serogroup 11 is pathogenic to the lactating udder of goats and produces marked biochemical alterations in the milk [13].

Biological context of Mammary Glands, Animal

  • A rapid and intense inflammatory response, characterized by udder swelling, increased bovine serum albumin (BSA) and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk of infected glands, and elevated rectal temperature and serum cortisol concentration, began at approximately 12 hr after challenge [14].
  • Marked decreases in udder blood flow, glucose uptake, lactose secretion and milk yield were apparent in mid- and late lactation of both groups of 87.5% HF animals [15].
  • Variations in mammary protein metabolism during the natural filling of the udder with milk over a 12-h period between two milkings: leucine kinetics [16].
  • A split udder design was used in which right quarters were undipped controls and left quarters were dipped with latex dip once daily for approximately 14 d prior to parturition [17].
  • However, prolactin uptake was quickly restored to about 2 micrograms/min per half udder shortly after milk ejection [18].

Anatomical context of Mammary Glands, Animal

  • Arteriovenous balance across the udder indicated a very efficient extraction of leucine by the mammary gland [19].
  • It has been reported that mammalian serum, and to a lower extent mammalian liver, brain, pancreas, udder, and milk, contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D activity [20].
  • From negative correlations between production and concentrations of chloride, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase activity, differences between udder halves in production may be related to changes of the blood-milk barrier, leukocyte diapedesis, and loss of integrity of secretory cells [21].
  • The postsynaptic alpha-blocking agent prazosin ( PRZS ) injected either into the udder artery (2 or 5 mg) or into the jugular vein (200 mg) consistently induced a significant increase in milk leakage [22].
  • A 3 d course of intramammary therapy with cloxacillin, commencing simultaneously with an infecting inoculum of approximately 10(8) colony forming units (c.f.u.) S. aureus, apparently eliminated the infection from one quarter of the udders of each of three lactating cows, but bacteria were re-isolated from two cows after a delay of several days [23].

Associations of Mammary Glands, Animal with chemical compounds

  • Effects of progesterone on mammary carcinogenesis by DMBA applied directly to rat mammae [24].
  • Reduction in mammae development score by sialoadenectomy was observed in both mice saline injected and mice treated with estradiol and progesterone [25].
  • METHODS: Saline-enhanced RF ablation was performed in human breast tissue specimens and cow udder tissue [26].
  • A daily injection of OB (250 microgram) and progesterone (60 mg) stimulated a significant, accumulative increase in prolactin in the circulation after 15 and 65 days and this was accompanied by udder growth [27].
  • Several triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, that contain two short-chain fatty acids (C4 to C8) at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone, were isolated from bovine udder by using solvent extraction and silica gel column chromatography [28].

Gene context of Mammary Glands, Animal

  • In the lactating udders, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, but not IL-8 and GM-CSF, induced significant accumulation of cells [29].
  • The number of TLR2 copies correlated well with those of TLR4, indicating coordinated regulation of these two PRRs during infection of the udder [30].
  • EMSA analyses revealed that both un-stimulated MEC models as well as extracts from healthy udders already display considerable levels of binding competent NF-kappaB [5].
  • Antibacterial effect of bovine lactoferrin against udder pathogens [31].
  • The cell accumulation induced by IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha was dose and time dependent in lactating udders, and time-dependent in teat cisterns [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mammary Glands, Animal


  1. Acridine orange staining for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis infection in cow milk. Jasper, D.E., Rosendal, S., Barnum, D.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Location of Staphylococcus aureus within the experimentally infected bovine udder and the expression of capsular polysaccharide type 5 in situ. Hensen, S.M., Pavicić, M.J., Lohuis, J.A., de Hoog, J.A., Poutrel, B. J. Dairy Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis: immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, and effect of flunixin meglumine. Anderson, K.L., Smith, A.R., Shanks, R.D., Whitmore, H.L., Davis, L.E., Gustafsson, B.K. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased fibrinolytic activity after surgery induced by low dose heparin. Arnesen, H., Engebretsen, L.F., Ugland, O.M., Seljeflot, I., Kierulf, P. Thromb. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. NF-kappaB factors are essential, but not the switch, for pathogen-related induction of the bovine beta-defensin 5-encoding gene in mammary epithelial cells. Yang, W., Molenaar, A., Kurts-Ebert, B., Seyfert, H.M. Mol. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The release and vascular action of bradykinin in the isolated perfused bovine udder. Zeitlin, I.J., Eshraghi, H.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The utilization of glucose for the synthesis of milk components in the fed and starved lactating goat in vivo. Chaiyabutr, N., Faulkner, A., Peaker, M. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Local IGF-I axis in peripubertal ruminant mammary development. Akers, R.M., McFadden, T.B., Purup, S., Vestergaard, M., Sejrsen, K., Capuco, A.V. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Relation between mastitis test score, mineral composition of milk, and blood electrolyte profiles in Holstein cows. Wegner, T.N., Stull, J.W. J. Dairy Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Development of a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine against mastitis in dairy cows. II. Field trial. Leitner, G., Yadlin, N., Lubashevsy, E., Ezra, E., Glickman, A., Chaffer, M., Winkler, M., Saran, A., Trainin, Z. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Evaluation of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip under experimental and natural exposure conditions. Drechsler, P.A., Wildman, E.E., Pankey, J.W. J. Dairy Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Citric acid concentration in subclinical mastitic milk. Oshima, M., Fuse, H. J. Dairy Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Biochemical changes of the milk in experimental caprine mastitis induced by Mycoplasma serogroup 11 (2-D). Rana, J.S., Gupta, P.P., Ahuja, S.P. Acta Vet. Hung. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Relationship of inflammatory cytokines, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-I to reduced performance during infectious disease. Shuster, D.E., Kehrli, M.E., Baumrucker, C.R. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Glucose metabolism in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on two types of roughage at different stages of lactation. Chaiyabutr, N., Preuksagorn, S., Komolvanich, S., Chanpongsang, S. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Variations in mammary protein metabolism during the natural filling of the udder with milk over a 12-h period between two milkings: leucine kinetics. Thivierge, M.C., Petitclerc, D., Bernier, J.F., Couture, Y., Lapierre, H.D. J. Dairy Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Use of latex teat dip with germicide during the prepartum period. Matthews, K.R., Harmon, R.J., Langlois, B.E., Crist, W.L., Hemken, R.W. J. Dairy Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Secretion and mammary gland uptake of prolactin in dairy cows during lactogenesis. Malven, P.V., Head, H.H., Collier, R.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Production of large amounts of [13C]leucine-enriched milk proteins by lactating cows. Boirie, Y., Fauquant, J., Rulquin, H., Maubois, J.L., Beaufrère, B. J. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Distribution of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D mRNA in bovine tissue sections. Stadelmann, B., Zurbriggen, A., Brodbeck, U. Cell Tissue Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Factors related to milk loss in quarters with low somatic cell counts. Fox, L.K., Shook, G.E., Schultz, L.H. J. Dairy Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of prazosin on the function of the teat sphincter in lactating cows. Vandeputte-Van Messom, G., Bernabé, J., Burvenich, C., Peeters, G. J. Dairy Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by bovine mammary gland macrophages and intracellular protection from antibiotic action in vitro and in vivo. Craven, N., Anderson, J.C. J. Dairy Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of progesterone on mammary carcinogenesis by DMBA applied directly to rat mammae. Jabara, A.G., Marks, G.N., Summers, J.E., Anderson, P.S. Br. J. Cancer (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of submandibular salivary glands on hormone responsiveness of mouse mammary glands. Sheffield, L.G., Welsch, C.W. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency ablation of breast tissue: an in vitro feasibility study. Böhm, T., Hilger, I., Müller, W., Reichenbach, J.R., Fleck, M., Kaiser, W.A. Investigative radiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Roles of prolactin, growth hormone, insulin and thyroxine in steroid-induced lactation in goats. Hart, I.C., Morant, S.V. J. Endocrinol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of triacylglycerols containing two short-chain fatty acids at sn-2 and sn-3 positions from bovine udder by fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry. Kim, Y.H., So, K.Y., Limb, J.K., Jhon, G.J., Han, S.Y. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Cytokine-induced inflammation in the ovine teat and udder. Persson, K., Colditz, I.G., Flapper, P., Franklin, N.A., Seow, H.F. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Mastitis increases mammary mRNA abundance of beta-defensin 5, toll-like-receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 but not TLR9 in cattle. Goldammer, T., Zerbe, H., Molenaar, A., Schuberth, H.J., Brunner, R.M., Kata, S.R., Seyfert, H.M. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Antibacterial effect of bovine lactoferrin against udder pathogens. Kutila, T., Pyörälä, S., Saloniemi, H., Kaartinen, L. Acta Vet. Scand. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Metabolic clearance rate, production rate and mammary uptake of progesterone in the goat. Heap, R.B., Bedford, C.A., Linzell, J.L. J. Endocrinol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Efficacy of various treatment regimens, using liposomal streptomycin in cows with brucellosis. Nicoletti, P., Lenk, R.P., Popescu, M.C., Swenson, C.E. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of oxytocin, prostaglandin F2 alpha and reproductive tract manipulations on uterine contractility in Holstein cows on days 0 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Cooper, M.D., Foote, R.H. J. Anim. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Interference of myrtol standardized with inflammatory and allergic mediators. Beuscher, N., Kietzmann, M., Bien, E., Champeroux, P. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Disposition of enrofloxacin (Baytril) into the udder after intravenous and intra-arterial injections into dairy cows. Malbe, M., Salonen, M., Fang, W., Oöpik, T., Jalakas, M., Klaassen, M., Sandholm, M. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. (1996) [Pubmed]
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