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Gene Review

LYL1  -  lymphoblastic leukemia associated...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BHLHA18, Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 18, Lymphoblastic leukemia-derived sequence 1, Protein lyl-1, bHLHa18
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Disease relevance of LYL1


High impact information on LYL1

  • This review focuses on two of these family members: SCL and LYL-1 [6].
  • TAL1, TAL2 and LYL1 encode a unique subgroup of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that share exceptional homology in their bHLH sequences [7].
  • LMO2 was more frequently coexpressed with LYL1, predominantly in IM0/delta/gamma adult cases, than with TAL1 [8].
  • Helix-loop-helix proteins LYL1 and E2a form heterodimeric complexes with distinctive DNA-binding properties in hematolymphoid cells [4].
  • LYL1 is expressed in many hematolymphoid cells, with the notable exceptions of thymocytes and T cells [4].

Biological context of LYL1

  • We describe here the expression pattern of lyl-1 in mouse embryos from 7 to 14 days post coitus using in situ hybridization, as well as beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal) expression in lyl-1-lacZ knock-in embryos, which express a C-terminally truncated Lyl-1 protein fused to the beta-Galactosidase (Lyl-1Delta/beta-Gal) [2].
  • Using the yeast two-hybrid system to screen a cDNA library constructed from B cells, we identified the E-box-binding proteins E12 and E47 as potential lymphoid dimerization partners for LYL1 [4].
  • We conclude that LYL1 has the properties of a lineage- and differentiation-specific HLH protein that contributes to T-cell neoplasia through its deregulated expression following chromosomal translocation [9].
  • The mouse Lyl-1 gene was cloned and shown to consist of four exons with extensive nucleotide and structural homology to the human LYL1 gene [9].
  • In a human T ALL cell line carrying a translocation that juxtaposed LYL1 with the beta TCR gene, the translocated LYL1 gene was transcriptionally active whereas the nontranslocated gene was transcriptionally silent [9].

Anatomical context of LYL1


Other interactions of LYL1

  • Patients with HOX11-positive lymphoblasts have an excellent prognosis when treated with modern combination chemotherapy, while cases at high risk of early failure are included largely in the TAL1- and LYL1-positive groups [10].
  • Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105 [1].
  • 3. These two regulatory genes are thus assigned to a region of high gene density and RFX1 is close to another DNA-binding factor, LYL1 [11].
  • The E2A gene is involved by the t(1;19)(q23;p13) in acute pre-B-cell leukemias and the LYL1 gene is structurally altered by a t(7;19)(q34;p13) in T-cell ALL [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LYL1


  1. Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105. Ferrier, R., Nougarede, R., Doucet, S., Kahn-Perles, B., Imbert, J., Mathieu-Mahul, D. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. lyl-1 and tal-1/scl, two genes encoding closely related bHLH transcription factors, display highly overlapping expression patterns during cardiovascular and hematopoietic ontogeny. Giroux, S., Kaushik, A.L., Capron, C., Jalil, A., Kelaidi, C., Sablitzky, F., Dumenil, D., Albagli, O., Godin, I. Gene Expr. Patterns (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Products of the TAL2 oncogene in leukemic T cells: bHLH phosphoproteins with DNA-binding activity. Xia, Y., Hwang, L.Y., Cobb, M.H., Baer, R. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Helix-loop-helix proteins LYL1 and E2a form heterodimeric complexes with distinctive DNA-binding properties in hematolymphoid cells. Miyamoto, A., Cui, X., Naumovski, L., Cleary, M.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Oncogenic potential of the transcription factor LYL1 in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Meng, Y.S., Khoury, H., Dick, J.E., Minden, M.D. Leukemia (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Helix-loop-helix genes translocated in lymphoid leukemia. Visvader, J., Begley, C.G. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Specific in vivo association between the bHLH and LIM proteins implicated in human T cell leukemia. Wadman, I., Li, J., Bash, R.O., Forster, A., Osada, H., Rabbitts, T.H., Baer, R. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Age-related phenotypic and oncogenic differences in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias may reflect thymic atrophy. Asnafi, V., Beldjord, K., Libura, M., Villarese, P., Millien, C., Ballerini, P., Kuhlein, E., Lafage-Pochitaloff, M., Delabesse, E., Bernard, O., Macintyre, E. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure, chromosome mapping, and expression of the mouse Lyl-1 gene. Kuo, S.S., Mellentin, J.D., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Cleary, M.L. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Gene expression profiling in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ferrando, A.A., Look, A.T. Semin. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The genes for MHC class II regulatory factors RFX1 and RFX2 are located on the short arm of chromosome 19. Pugliatti, L., Derré, J., Berger, R., Ucla, C., Reith, W., Mach, B. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Mapping of translocation breakpoints on the short arm of chromosome 19 in acute leukemias by in situ hybridization. Saltman, D.L., Mellentin, J.D., Smith, S.D., Cleary, M.L. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
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