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Gene Review

Ser  -  Serrate

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Bd, CG6127, CT18858, Dmel\CG6127, Protein beaded, ...
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Disease relevance of Ser

  • This establishes one important role for the Serrate signaling territory, which is to define the extent of denticle field specification [1].
  • Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis ser. jordanica (serotype H71), a novel serovariety isolated in Jordan [2].

High impact information on Ser

  • Peripodial clones expressing Hedgehog induce Serrate in the DP while loss of peripodial Hedgehog disrupts disc growth [3].
  • This is achieved by fng through a cell-autonomous mechanism that inhibits a cell's ability to respond to Serrate protein and potentiates its ability to respond to Delta protein [4].
  • A Serrate-expressing signaling center controls Drosophila hematopoiesis [5].
  • Cell fate transformation occurred even when a single SOL cell lost both Dl and Ser [6].
  • Delta and Serrate are redundant Notch ligands required for asymmetric cell divisions within the Drosophila sensory organ lineage [6].

Biological context of Ser


Anatomical context of Ser


Associations of Ser with chemical compounds

  • The isolated cDNA encoded a transmembrane protein with a Delta/Serrate/LAG-2 domain, 16 epidermal growth factor-like repeats and a cysteine-rich region [12].
  • It has a basic histidine (His) at residue 187, adjacent to the reactive serine (Ser) at residue 188, whereas most other characterized members of the family have an acidic glutamate (Glu) in the equivalent position [13].
  • The proteinase K digested peaks were subjected to Edman degradation (first peak, ser-pro-ser/gly-ser; second peak, tyr/arg-leu), mass spectrometry (no result) and MALDI analysis (no result) [14].

Physical interactions of Ser

  • Here we have tested this possibility by examining the ability of delta and Serrate to interact and signal with Notch molecules in which different domains had been deleted [15].

Enzymatic interactions of Ser


Regulatory relationships of Ser

  • We show that L/Ser are expressed in entire early eye disc before the expression of pnr and Iro-C is initiated in late first instar dorsal eye margin cells [17].
  • During wing development, expression of D-mib in dorsal cells appears to be necessary and sufficient for wing margin specification, indicating that D-mib also regulates Ser signaling [8].
  • This Notch-induced cell specification is distinguished by the fact that it does not appear to utilize the ligand Serrate and the modulator Fringe [18].
  • In the abdominal epidermis, Serrate promotes denticle diversity by precisely localizing a single cell stripe of rhomboid expression, which generates a source of EGF signal that is not produced in thoracic epidermis [19].
  • In the head, Deformed is required to activate Serrate transcription in the maxillary segment, where Serrate is required for normal mouth hook morphogenesis [19].

Other interactions of Ser

  • We demonstrate that dorsal eye disc cells also become L or Ser dependent when they are ventralized by removal of pnr or Iro-C gene function [17].
  • In addition, we show that later Ser expression in the presumptive vein cells is controlled by the Egfr pathway [20].
  • The product of the Notch gene, which encodes a receptor, is also required for this event and we suggest that its role is to integrate the inputs of Ser and Wg [9].
  • Furthermore, the expression of both Ser and Wg is sufficient to trigger ectopic wing development in the wing disc and leg discs [9].
  • We found that Ser and Dl maintain each other's expression by a positive feedback loop. fng is expressed specifically by dorsal cells and functions to position and restrict this feedback loop to the developing dorsal-ventral boundary [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ser


  1. Serrate-Notch signaling defines the scope of the initial denticle field by modulating EGFR activation. Walters, J.W., Muñoz, C., Paaby, A.B., Dinardo, S. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis ser. jordanica (serotype H71), a novel serovariety isolated in Jordan. Khyami-Horani, H., Hajaij, M., Charles, J.F. Curr. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Novel signaling from the peripodial membrane is essential for eye disc patterning in Drosophila. Cho, K.O., Chern, J., Izaddoost, S., Choi, K.W. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Fringe modulates Notch-ligand interactions. Panin, V.M., Papayannopoulos, V., Wilson, R., Irvine, K.D. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. A Serrate-expressing signaling center controls Drosophila hematopoiesis. Lebestky, T., Jung, S.H., Banerjee, U. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Delta and Serrate are redundant Notch ligands required for asymmetric cell divisions within the Drosophila sensory organ lineage. Zeng, C., Younger-Shepherd, S., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Lobe and Serrate are required for cell survival during early eye development in Drosophila. Singh, A., Shi, X., Choi, K.W. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases have complementary functions in the regulation of delta and serrate signaling in Drosophila. Le Borgne, R., Remaud, S., Hamel, S., Schweisguth, F. PLoS Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Serrate and wingless cooperate to induce vestigial gene expression and wing formation in Drosophila. Couso, J.P., Knust, E., Martinez Arias, A. Curr. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Specification of cell fates within the salivary gland primordium. Haberman, A.S., Isaac, D.D., Andrew, D.J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Polarized exocytosis and transcytosis of Notch during its apical localization in Drosophila epithelial cells. Sasaki, N., Sasamura, T., Ishikawa, H.O., Kanai, M., Ueda, R., Saigo, K., Matsuno, K. Genes Cells (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. X-Serrate-1 is involved in primary neurogenesis in Xenopus laevis in a complementary manner with X-Delta-1. Kiyota, T., Jono, H., Kuriyama, S., Hasegawa, K., Miyatani, S., Kinoshita, T. Dev. Genes Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of the residue adjacent to the reactive serine on the substrate interactions of Drosophila esterase 6. Myers, M.A., Healy, M.J., Oakeshott, J.G. Biochem. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification of MINUS: A negative regulator of microtubule nucleation in a variety of organisms. Shahani, N., Subramaniam, S., Brandt, R. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural requirements for notch signalling with delta and serrate during the development and patterning of the wing disc of Drosophila. Lawrence, N., Klein, T., Brennan, K., Martinez Arias, A. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The function and regulation of cut expression on the wing margin of Drosophila: Notch, Wingless and a dominant negative role for Delta and Serrate. Micchelli, C.A., Rulifson, E.J., Blair, S.S. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Initial state of the Drosophila eye before dorsoventral specification is equivalent to ventral. Singh, A., Choi, K.W. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. A Delta-Notch signaling border regulated by Engrailed/Invected repression specifies boundary cells in the Drosophila hindgut. Iwaki, D.D., Lengyel, J.A. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Hox genes differentially regulate Serrate to generate segment-specific structures. Wiellette, E.L., McGinnis, W. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Multiple signaling pathways and a selector protein sequentially regulate Drosophila wing development. Yan, S.J., Gu, Y., Li, W.X., Fleming, R.J. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The gene Serrate encodes a putative EGF-like transmembrane protein essential for proper ectodermal development in Drosophila melanogaster. Fleming, R.J., Scottgale, T.N., Diederich, R.J., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Dissection of cis-regulatory elements of the Drosophila gene Serrate. Bachmann, A., Knust, E. Dev. Genes Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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