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Gene Review

Haao  -  3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: 3-HAO, 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase, HAD
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High impact information on Haao

  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase (3HAO) is the biosynthetic enzyme for quinolinic acid, an endogenous agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype and a potent neurotoxin [1].
  • The highest density of 3HAO-i cells was found in the molecular layer of Ammon's horn and in the hilus of area dentata, while the granular cell layer of area dentata and stratum pyramidale of Ammon's horn contained the lowest number of 3HAO-stained cells [2].
  • The observation that 3HAO and QPRT only partially coexist in hippocampal glial cells suggests that while synthesis and catabolism of QUIN may occur in the same glial cells, catabolism of QUIN can also take place in cells lacking the synthetic enzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[2]
  • Cells containing 3HAO immunoreactivity (3HAO-i) were present in all subfields of the hippocampal region, including the area dentata, Ammon's horn, the subicular complex, and the entorhinal area [2].
  • Kinetic analyses of both pure liver and partially purified brain 3HAO revealed an identical Km of 3 microM for the substrate 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid [3].

Biological context of Haao

  • Specific, reversible, and tightly binding 3HAO inhibitors can be expected to become valuable tools for the study of quinolinate neurobiology [4].
  • QSAR study on inhibition of brain 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid dioxygenase (3-HAO): a molecular connectivity approach [5].

Anatomical context of Haao

  • Kinetic analysis of rat forebrain 3HAO revealed a Km of 3.6 +/- 0.5 microM for 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and a Vmax of 73.7 +/- 9.5 pmol quinolinic acid/h/mg tissue [6].
  • The two enzymes were differentially expressed by astrocytes in a complementary pattern: 3HAO staining was strongest at the glomerular-external plexiform layer junction; QPRT staining was strongest at the glomerular-olfactory nerve layer junction [7].
  • The large increases in striatal enzyme activities after 7 days were accompanied by smaller increases in both 3-HAO and QPRT activities in the ipsilateral substantia nigra [8].
  • No changes in the activity of hippocampal 3-HAO or QPRT were noted 7 or 60 days after cholinergic deafferentation by fornix-fimbria transection nor were any changes observed in the contralateral hippocampus at any time-point following the ibotenate lesion [9].

Associations of Haao with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Haao


  1. 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase-containing astrocytic processes surround glutamate-containing axon terminals in the rat striatum. Roberts, R.C., McCarthy, K.E., Du, F., Ottersen, O.P., Okuno, E., Schwarcz, R. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Quinolinic acid metabolism in the rat brain. Immunohistochemical identification of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in the hippocampal region. Köhler, C., Eriksson, L.G., Flood, P.R., Hardie, J.A., Okuno, E., Schwarcz, R. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Rat 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase: purification from the liver and immunocytochemical localization in the brain. Okuno, E., Köhler, C., Schwarcz, R. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. 4-halo-3-hydroxyanthranilic acids: potent competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid oxygenase in vitro. Walsh, J.L., Todd, W.P., Carpenter, B.K., Schwarcz, R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. QSAR study on inhibition of brain 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid dioxygenase (3-HAO): a molecular connectivity approach. Agrawal, V.K., Sohgaura, R., Khadikar, P.V. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Synthesis of quinolinic acid by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase in rat brain tissue in vitro. Foster, A.C., White, R.J., Schwarcz, R. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential complementary localization of metabolic enzymes for quinolinic acid in olfactory bulb astrocytes. Poston, M.R., Bailey, M.S., Schwarcz, R., Shipley, M.T. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Basal ganglia lesions in the rat: effects on quinolinic acid metabolism. Schwarcz, R., Okuno, E., White, R.J. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased quinolinic acid metabolism following neuronal degeneration in the rat hippocampus. Speciale, C., Okuno, E., Schwarcz, R. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of excess leucine on tryptophan oxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase and leucine aminotransferase in livers of young rats. Chugh, K., Shanker, V., Lal, H., Saini, A.S. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Anticonvulsant effects of the 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase inhibitor NCR-631. Luthman, J. Amino Acids (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway in rats. Allegri, G., Ragazzi, E., Bertazzo, A., Costa, C.V., Rocchi, R. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Non-competitive inhibition of 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase by 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in whole brain of rat. Ji, X.D., Nishimura, M., Heyes, M.P. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of dietary restriction with and without excess leucine on hepatic tryptophan oxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase and leucine aminotransferase in rats. Shanker, V., Chugh, K., Lal, H., Saini, A.S. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Peripheral distribution of kynurenine metabolites and activity of kynurenine pathway enzymes in renal failure. Pawlak, D., Tankiewicz, A., Matys, T., Buczko, W. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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