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MeSH Review

Fornix (Brain)

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Disease relevance of Fornix (Brain)


Psychiatry related information on Fornix (Brain)


High impact information on Fornix (Brain)

  • Rats receiving chronic intraventricular infusions of RTA showed significantly more low affinity NGF receptor immunoreactive (p75NGFR-IR) neurons on the lesioned side than did control animals 2 weeks following unilateral fimbria-fornix lesion [4].
  • Recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was infused for 2 weeks into the lateral ventricle of fimbria-fornix transected adult rats, and its effects were compared with those of purified mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) [5].
  • To examine the mechanism by which axotomized cholinergic neurons die in vivo, lentiviral vectors expressing Bcl-xL, human nerve growth factor (hNGF), or green fluorescent protein were injected into the septum 3 weeks before transection of the fimbria fornix [6].
  • We report here that NGF treatment significantly reduces both the total neuronal and cholinergic neuronal death found 2 weeks after fimbria fornix transection; there was a sparing of 50% of the neurons in the MS and essentially 100% of those in the VDB that otherwise would have died [7].
  • Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor protects GABAergic, but not cholinergic, septohippocampal neurons following fimbria-fornix transection [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fornix (Brain)


Biological context of Fornix (Brain)


Anatomical context of Fornix (Brain)

  • Because these cellular changes are reminiscent of some of the morphological abnormalities seen with glutamate receptor-mediated excitoxicity, we tested whether excitotoxic injury to the septal complex of adult rats mimics the degeneration observed within the dorsolateral septal nucleus and medial septal nucleus following fimbria-fornix transection [14].
  • Some rats with fimbria-fornix lesions were implanted with acetylcholine-producing or control fibroblasts into the neocortex, another major target of the basal forebrain cholinergic system, to determine if the site of acetylcholine delivery to the damaged brain is critical for functional recovery [15].
  • In rats, under halothane anesthesia, the responses evoked by fornix/fimbria stimulation in the nucleus accumbens consist of two main positive peaks (at 10 and 25 ms, referred to as P10 and P25, respectively) [16].
  • No changes could be detected after atropine, handling, lateral habenula stimulation, or acute fimbria-fornix or fasciculus retroflexus transection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[17]
  • Between P14 and P21, MARCKS expression declined gradually in the hilus, remained elevated in hippocampal CA1, CA3, and granule cell layers, and increased dramatically in the corpus callosum and fimbria/fornix [18].

Associations of Fornix (Brain) with chemical compounds


Gene context of Fornix (Brain)

  • Effects of fimbria-fornix lesion and amyloid pathology on spatial learning and memory in transgenic APP+PS1 mice [24].
  • Medial fimbria-fornix lesions or section of the medial corticohypothalamic tracts (MCHT) did not influence CRH mRNA levels [25].
  • Results from previous studies have indicated that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and other members of the family of gp130-associated cytokines have neuroprotective effects on septohippocampal projection neurons axotomized by fimbria-fornix transection (FFT) [26].
  • Moreover, in vivo GM-CSF and EPO promoted survival of septal cholinergic neurons in adult rats which had undergone fimbria-fornix transections [27].
  • Fine structure of rat septohippocampal neurons. III. Recovery of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity after fimbria-fornix transection [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fornix (Brain)


  1. Leukaemia inhibitory factor prevents loss of p75-nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity in medial septal neurons following fimbria-fornix lesions. Panni, M.K., Atkinson, J., Sofroniew, M.V. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections in the fornix-fimbria on locomotor activity in photocell cages and the open field. Williams, J.H., Meara, J.R., Azmitia, E.C. Behav. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Nicotine improvement of Morris water task performance after fimbria-fornix lesion is blocked by mecamylamine. Brown, R.W., Gonzalez, C.L., Whishaw, I.Q., Kolb, B. Behav. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. TrkA activation is sufficient to rescue axotomized cholinergic neurons. Lucidi-Phillipi, C.A., Clary, D.O., Reichardt, L.F., Gage, F.H. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents neuronal degeneration and promotes low affinity NGF receptor expression in the adult rat CNS. Hagg, T., Quon, D., Higaki, J., Varon, S. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Bcl-xL protects adult septal cholinergic neurons from axotomized cell death. Blömer, U., Kafri, T., Randolph-Moore, L., Verma, I.M., Gage, F.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Continuous infusion of nerve growth factor prevents basal forebrain neuronal death after fimbria fornix transection. Williams, L.R., Varon, S., Peterson, G.M., Wictorin, K., Fischer, W., Bjorklund, A., Gage, F.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor protects GABAergic, but not cholinergic, septohippocampal neurons following fimbria-fornix transection. Naumann, T., Schnell, O., Zhi, Q., Kirsch, M., Schubert, K.O., Sendtner, M., Hofmann, H.D. Brain Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Hippocampal serotonin re-uptake and nocturnal locomotor activity after microinjections of 5,7-DHT in the fornix-fimbria. Williams, J.H., Azmitia, E.C. Brain Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Sensory gating in a computer model of the CA3 neural network of the hippocampus. Flach, K.A., Adler, L.E., Gerhardt, G.A., Miller, C., Bickford, P., MacGregor, R.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Transient up-regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor-alpha mRNA in axotomized rat septal neurons. Lee, M.Y., Naumann, T., Kirsch, M., Frotscher, M., Hofmann, H.D. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Axotomized septal cholinergic neurons rescued by nerve growth factor or neurotrophin-4/5 fail to express the inducible transcription factor c-Jun. Hughes, P.E., Alexi, T., Hefti, F., Knusel, B. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The nitric oxide system modulates the in vivo release of acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens induced by stimulation of the hippocampal fornix/fimbria-projection. Kraus, M.M., Prast, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Fimbria-fornix transection and excitotoxicity produce similar neurodegeneration in the septum. Ginsberg, S.D., Portera-Cailliau, C., Martin, L.J. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Hippocampal grafts of acetylcholine-producing cells are sufficient to improve behavioural performance following a unilateral fimbria-fornix lesion. Dickinson-Anson, H., Aubert, I., Gage, F.H., Fisher, L.J. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Responses of the nucleus accumbens following fornix/fimbria stimulation in the rat. Identification and long-term potentiation of mono- and polysynaptic pathways. Boeijinga, P.H., Mulder, A.B., Pennartz, C.M., Manshanden, I., Lopes da Silva, F.H. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus as studied by microdialysis is dependent on axonal impulse flow and increases during behavioural activation. Nilsson, O.G., Kalén, P., Rosengren, E., Björklund, A. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution of the protein kinase C substrates MARCKS and MRP in the postnatal developing rat brain. McNamara, R.K., Lenox, R.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Cholinergic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) but not neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA levels in the developing rat hippocampus. da Penha Berzaghi, M., Cooper, J., Castrén, E., Zafra, F., Sofroniew, M., Thoenen, H., Lindholm, D. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Fimbria-fornix transections selectively down-regulate subtypes of glutamate transporter and glutamate receptor proteins in septum and hippocampus. Ginsberg, S.D., Rothstein, J.D., Price, D.L., Martin, L.J. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Systematic comparison of the effects of hippocampal and fornix-fimbria lesions on acquisition of three configural discriminations. McDonald, R.J., Murphy, R.A., Guarraci, F.A., Gortler, J.R., White, N.M., Baker, A.G. Hippocampus. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Similarities vs. differences in place learning and circadian activity in rats after fimbria-fornix section or ibotenate removal of hippocampal cells. Whishaw, I.Q., Jarrard, L.E. Hippocampus. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Restoration of high affinity choline uptake in the hippocampal formation following septal cell suspension transplants in rats with fimbria-fornix lesions. Kaseda, Y., Simon, J.R., Low, W.C. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of fimbria-fornix lesion and amyloid pathology on spatial learning and memory in transgenic APP+PS1 mice. Liu, L., Ikonen, S., Heikkinen, T., Heikkilä, M., Puoliväli, J., van Groen, T., Tanila, H. Behav. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Selective forebrain fiber tract lesions implicate ventral hippocampal structures in tonic regulation of paraventricular nucleus corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA expression. Herman, J.P., Cullinan, W.E., Young, E.A., Akil, H., Watson, S.J. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Activation of STAT3 signaling in axotomized neurons and reactive astrocytes after fimbria-fornix transection. Schubert, K.O., Naumann, T., Schnell, O., Zhi, Q., Steup, A., Hofmann, H.D., Kirsch, M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Trophic effect of erythropoietin and other hematopoietic factors on central cholinergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Konishi, Y., Chui, D.H., Hirose, H., Kunishita, T., Tabira, T. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Fine structure of rat septohippocampal neurons. III. Recovery of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity after fimbria-fornix transection. Naumann, T., Kermer, P., Frotscher, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Transneuronal changes in dendrites of GABAergic parvalbumin-containing neurons of the rat fascia dentata following entorhinal lesion. Nitsch, R., Frotscher, M. Hippocampus. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Grafted septal neurons form cholinergic synaptic connections in the dentate gyrus of behaviorally impaired aged rats. Clarke, D.J., Gage, F.H., Nilsson, O.G., Björklund, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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