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Chemical Compound Review

kynurenine     2-amino-4-(2-aminophenyl)-4- oxo-butanoic acid

Synonyms: Kynurenin, dl-Kynurenine, SureCN20874, AG-L-66674, BSPBio_002482, ...
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Disease relevance of kynurenine


Psychiatry related information on kynurenine


High impact information on kynurenine


Chemical compound and disease context of kynurenine


Biological context of kynurenine


Anatomical context of kynurenine


Associations of kynurenine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of kynurenine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of kynurenine


  1. Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirus-infected rhesus macaques: relationship to clinical and viral status. Heyes, M.P., Mefford, I.N., Quearry, B.J., Dedhia, M., Lackner, A. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Sources of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid in the brain of HIV-1-infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques. Heyes, M.P., Saito, K., Lackner, A., Wiley, C.A., Achim, C.L., Markey, S.P. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Relationship between interferon-gamma, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and tryptophan catabolism. Taylor, M.W., Feng, G.S. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Altered tryptophan and neopterin metabolism in cancer patients treated with recombinant interleukin 2. Brown, R.R., Lee, C.M., Kohler, P.C., Hank, J.A., Storer, B.E., Sondel, P.M. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Quinolinic acid and kynurenine pathway metabolism in inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological disease. Heyes, M.P., Saito, K., Crowley, J.S., Davis, L.E., Demitrack, M.A., Der, M., Dilling, L.A., Elia, J., Kruesi, M.J., Lackner, A. Brain (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase in primary human macrophages by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is strain dependent. Grant, R.S., Naif, H., Thuruthyil, S.J., Nasr, N., Littlejohn, T., Takikawa, O., Kapoor, V. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in patients with eating disorders: relation to clinical and biochemical variable. Demitrack, M.A., Heyes, M.P., Altemus, M., Pigott, T.A., Gold, P.W. Biol. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Kynurenine in blood plasma and DST in patients with endogenous anxiety and endogenous depression. Orlikov, A.B., Prakhye, I.B., Ryzov, I.V. Biol. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Interferon-alpha-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism. relationship to depression and paroxetine treatment. Capuron, L., Neurauter, G., Musselman, D.L., Lawson, D.H., Nemeroff, C.B., Fuchs, D., Miller, A.H. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Tryptophan metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with Huntington's disease. Stoy, N., Mackay, G.M., Forrest, C.M., Christofides, J., Egerton, M., Stone, T.W., Darlington, L.G. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. A genomic screen in yeast implicates kynurenine 3-monooxygenase as a therapeutic target for Huntington disease. Giorgini, F., Guidetti, P., Nguyen, Q., Bennett, S.C., Muchowski, P.J. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. Terness, P., Bauer, T.M., Röse, L., Dufter, C., Watzlik, A., Simon, H., Opelz, G. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Coates, C.J., Jasinskiene, N., Miyashiro, L., James, A.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Thrombospondin-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase are major targets of extracellular ATP in human dendritic cells. Marteau, F., Gonzalez, N.S., Communi, D., Goldman, M., Boeynaems, J.M., Communi, D. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Monocyte-mediated T-cell suppression and augmented monocyte tryptophan catabolism after human hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Hainz, U., Obexer, P., Winkler, C., Sedlmayr, P., Takikawa, O., Greinix, H., Lawitschka, A., Pötschger, U., Fuchs, D., Ladisch, S., Heitger, A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway in patients with the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Silver, R.M., McKinley, K., Smith, E.A., Quearry, B., Harati, Y., Sternberg, E.M., Heyes, M.P. Arthritis Rheum. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Kynurenine aminotransferase and glutamine transaminase K of Escherichia coli: identity with aspartate aminotransferase. Han, Q., Fang, J., Li, J. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Pneumococcal meningitis causes accumulation of neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites in brain regions prone to injury. Bellac, C.L., Coimbra, R.S., Christen, S., Leib, S.L. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of pterin synthesis is not required for cytokine-stimulated tryptophan metabolism. Sakai, N., Saito, K., Kaufman, S., Heyes, M.P., Milstien, S. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Novel protein modification by kynurenine in human lenses. Vazquez, S., Aquilina, J.A., Jamie, J.F., Sheil, M.M., Truscott, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. 3-Hydroxykynurenine transaminase identity with alanine glyoxylate transaminase. A probable detoxification protein in Aedes aegypti. Han, Q., Fang, J., Li, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. A missense mutation in kynurenine aminotransferase-1 in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Kwok, J.B., Kapoor, R., Gotoda, T., Iwamoto, Y., Iizuka, Y., Yamada, N., Isaacs, K.E., Kushwaha, V.V., Church, W.B., Schofield, P.R., Kapoor, V. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Human bone marrow stromal cells inhibit allogeneic T-cell responses by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan degradation. Meisel, R., Zibert, A., Laryea, M., Göbel, U., Däubener, W., Dilloo, D. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. A mechanism of quinolinic acid formation by brain in inflammatory neurological disease. Attenuation of synthesis from L-tryptophan by 6-chlorotryptophan and 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate. Heyes, M.P., Saito, K., Major, E.O., Milstien, S., Markey, S.P., Vickers, J.H. Brain (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase by Interferon-{gamma} in Human Islets. Sarkar, S.A., Wong, R., Hackl, S.I., Moua, O., Gill, R.G., Wiseman, A., Davidson, H.W., Hutton, J.C. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Kynurenine pathway enzymes in dendritic cells initiate tolerogenesis in the absence of functional IDO. Belladonna, M.L., Grohmann, U., Guidetti, P., Volpi, C., Bianchi, R., Fioretti, M.C., Schwarcz, R., Fallarino, F., Puccetti, P. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Tryptophan degradation in mice initiated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Takikawa, O., Yoshida, R., Kido, R., Hayaishi, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Alpha-aminoadipate and kynurenine aminotransferase activities from rat kidney. Evidence for separate identity. Mawal, M.R., Deshmukh, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Tryptophan recycling is responsible for the interferon-gamma resistance of Chlamydia psittaci GPIC in indoleamine dioxygenase-expressing host cells. Wood, H., Roshick, C., McClarty, G. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Cloning and functional expression of a soluble form of kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase from rat kidney. Buchli, R., Alberati-Giani, D., Malherbe, P., Köhler, C., Broger, C., Cesura, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of the kynurenine metabolic pathway by interferon-gamma in murine cloned macrophages and microglial cells. Alberati-Giani, D., Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P., Köhler, C., Cesura, A.M. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Combined inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and nitric oxide synthase modulates neurotoxin release by interferon-gamma-activated macrophages. Chiarugi, A., Dello Sbarba, P., Paccagnini, A., Donnini, S., Filippi, S., Moroni, F. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Crystal structure of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a special subgroup of the type III extradiol dioxygenases. Li, X., Guo, M., Fan, J., Tang, W., Wang, D., Ge, H., Rong, H., Teng, M., Niu, L., Liu, Q., Hao, Q. Protein Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Human alpha-1-microglobulin is covalently bound to kynurenine-derived chromophores. Sala, A., Campagnoli, M., Perani, E., Romano, A., Labò, S., Monzani, E., Minchiotti, L., Galliano, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Free radical reactions photosensitized by the human lens component, kynurenine: an EPR and spin trapping investigation. Reszka, K.J., Bilski, P., Chignell, C.F., Dillon, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. More rapid method for simultaneous measurement of tryptophan and kynurenine by HPLC. Laich, A., Neurauter, G., Widner, B., Fuchs, D. Clin. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Non-invasive monitoring of kidney allograft rejection through IDO metabolism evaluation. Brandacher, G., Cakar, F., Winkler, C., Schneeberger, S., Obrist, P., B??sm??ller, C., Werner-Felmayer, G., Werner, E.R., Bonatti, H., Margreiter, R., Fuchs, D. Kidney Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
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