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Gene Review

Actr2  -  ARP2 actin-related protein 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 4921510D23Rik, AA409782, Actin-like protein 2, Actin-related protein 2, Arp2, ...
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Disease relevance of Actr2

  • RNA interference silencing of up to 90% of Arp3 protein expression, a major subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, proportionately decreases the intracellular motility of Listeria monocytogenes and actin nucleation activity ascribable to the Arp2/3 complex in mouse embryonic fibroblasts [1].
  • Cellular proteins essential for actin polymerization downstream of Rho family GTPases include the Arp2/3 complex as an actin nucleator and members of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) family as activators of the Arp2/3 complex [2].

High impact information on Actr2

  • Significantly, alpha-catenin directly regulates actin-filament organization by suppressing Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, likely by competing with the Arp2/3 complex for binding to actin filaments [3].
  • In addition, a Rac1/2 or Vav1/3 deficiency blocks Arp2/3 recruitment and actin polymerization at the complement-induced phagosome, indicating that these proteins regulate early steps in phagocytosis [4].
  • We propose that constitutive VCA domain phosphorylation is required for optimal stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex by WASP [5].
  • Arp2/3 inhibition in fibroblasts severely disrupts actin organization and membrane protrusion [6].
  • In contrast, Arp2/3 inhibition in growth cones minimally affects actin organization and does not inhibit lamellipodia protrusion or de novo filopodia formation [6].

Associations of Actr2 with chemical compounds

  • This establishes a new function for the FAK FERM domain in forming a phosphorylation-regulated complex with Arp2/3, linking integrin signalling directly with the actin polymerization machinery [7].

Biological context of Actr2


Anatomical context of Actr2


Regulatory relationships of Actr2

  • N-WASP activates Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization through the VCA region, leading to filopodium formation [11].

Other interactions of Actr2

  • We find that Arp3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex, appears transiently while single clathrin-coated pits internalize [8].
  • WAVE1 has been reported to associate and activate Arp2/3 complex at its C-terminal region that is rich in acidic residues [12].
  • This protein has a VCA region (verplorin-like, cofilin-like, acidic region) at the C-terminus, which binds to G-actin and Arp2/3 complex, and several functional domains at the N-terminus, such as WHD (WASP homology domain) and GBD/CRIB domain [11].


  1. Arp2/3 complex-deficient mouse fibroblasts are viable and have normal leading-edge actin structure and function. Di Nardo, A., Cicchetti, G., Falet, H., Hartwig, J.H., Stossel, T.P., Kwiatkowski, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Involvement of the Arp2/3 complex and Scar2 in Golgi polarity in scratch wound models. Magdalena, J., Millard, T.H., Etienne-Manneville, S., Launay, S., Warwick, H.K., Machesky, L.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Alpha-catenin is a molecular switch that binds E-cadherin-beta-catenin and regulates actin-filament assembly. Drees, F., Pokutta, S., Yamada, S., Nelson, W.J., Weis, W.I. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Requirements for Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factors and Rho GTPases in FcgammaR- and complement-mediated phagocytosis. Hall, A.B., Gakidis, M.A., Glogauer, M., Wilsbacher, J.L., Gao, S., Swat, W., Brugge, J.S. Immunity (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation of the WASP-VCA domain increases its affinity for the Arp2/3 complex and enhances actin polymerization by WASP. Cory, G.O., Cramer, R., Blanchoin, L., Ridley, A.J. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Arp2/3 is a negative regulator of growth cone translocation. Strasser, G.A., Rahim, N.A., VanderWaal, K.E., Gertler, F.B., Lanier, L.M. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Focal adhesion kinase controls actin assembly via a FERM-mediated interaction with the Arp2/3 complex. Serrels, B., Serrels, A., Brunton, V.G., Holt, M., McLean, G.W., Gray, C.H., Jones, G.E., Frame, M.C. Nat. Cell Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP) and the Arp2/3 complex are recruited to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured fibroblasts. Merrifield, C.J., Qualmann, B., Kessels, M.M., Almers, W. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Sustained activation of N-WASP through phosphorylation is essential for neurite extension. Suetsugu, S., Hattori, M., Miki, H., Tezuka, T., Yamamoto, T., Mikoshiba, K., Takenawa, T. Dev. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential roles of WAVE1 and WAVE2 in dorsal and peripheral ruffle formation for fibroblast cell migration. Suetsugu, S., Yamazaki, D., Kurisu, S., Takenawa, T. Dev. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. From N-WASP to WAVE: key molecules for regulation of cortical actin organization. Takenawa, T. Novartis Found. Symp. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Arp2/3 complex-independent actin regulatory function of WAVE. Sasaki, N., Miki, H., Takenawa, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
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