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Gene Review

Cfl1  -  cofilin 1, non-muscle

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AA959946, Cof, Cofilin, non-muscle isoform, Cofilin-1, cofilin, ...
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Disease relevance of Cfl1


High impact information on Cfl1


Chemical compound and disease context of Cfl1


Biological context of Cfl1


Anatomical context of Cfl1

  • Taken together, these data suggest that the three biochemically distinct mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms evolved to fulfill specific requirements for actin filament dynamics in different cell types [13].
  • In cultured NIH3T3 and B16F1 cells, CAP1 is a highly abundant protein that colocalizes with cofilin-1 to dynamic regions of the cortical actin cytoskeleton [14].
  • Neural crest cells lacking n-cofilin do not polarize, and F-actin bundles or fibers are not detectable [12].
  • Here we show that in mouse the non-muscle-specific gene-n-cofilin-is essential for migration of neural crest cells as well as other cell types in the paraxial mesoderm [12].
  • Cofilin/ADF proteins are a ubiquitously expressed family of F-actin depolymerizing factors found in eukaryotic cells including plants [12].

Associations of Cfl1 with chemical compounds

  • In higher vertebrates, cells often express as many as three different ADF/cofilin genes and each of these proteins may be phosphorylated on serine 3, giving rise to up to six different species [15].
  • During in vitro myogenesis of mouse C2 cells, expression of the M-type cofilin was upregulated [16].
  • However, upon treatment with DMSO, cytoplasmic actin filaments were disrupted and intranuclear rod structures containing cofilin and actin were apparently larger and thicker in cells overexpressing cofilin than in normal cells [17].
  • The analogs of the unphosphorylated form (A3-cofilin) and the phosphorylated form (D3-cofilin) were prepared by converting Ser3, a regulatory phosphorylation site, to Ala or Asp [18].
  • Antibodies directed against cofilin labeled intranuclear actin rods induced in cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide or exposed to heat shock and also labeled cytoplasmic actin rods induced in cells incubated in specific salt buffers [19].

Physical interactions of Cfl1

  • These data suggest that HSP20 may modulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics by competing with the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin for binding to the scaffolding protein 14-3-3 [20].

Enzymatic interactions of Cfl1


Regulatory relationships of Cfl1


Other interactions of Cfl1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cfl1

  • Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that cofilin-1 is expressed in most cell types of embryos and adult mice [13].
  • Futhermore, this bank of antibodies was used to identify by Western blotting a putative member of the ADF/cofilin family in the sea slug, Aplysia californica [15].
  • From immunocross-reactivities and sequence alignments, the principal epitope in mammalian ADF and cofilin-1 recognized by an antibody raised against avian ADF was identified [15].
  • The mRNA encoding M-type cofilin, though it contains two variants that differ in the size of their 3'-non-coding sequences, was detected predominantly in heart, skeletal muscle, C2 myotubes, and testis by Northern blotting, while the mRNA for NM-type cofilin was seen in a variety of non-muscle tissues [16].
  • By means of immunoblotting combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we found that two cofilin variants, muscle type (M-type) and non-muscle type (NM-type), exist in mammals, while a single isoform exists in chickens [16].


  1. Cofilin mediates ATP depletion-induced endothelial cell actin alterations. Suurna, M.V., Ashworth, S.L., Hosford, M., Sandoval, R.M., Wean, S.E., Shah, B.M., Bamburg, J.R., Molitoris, B.A. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Alphavbeta3 integrin and cofilin modulate K1735 melanoma cell invasion. Dang, D., Bamburg, J.R., Ramos, D.M. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Impaired spermatogenic ability of testicular germ cells in mice deficient in the LIM-kinase 2 gene. Takahashi, H., Koshimizu, U., Miyazaki, J., Nakamura, T. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased expression of cofilin in dystrophic chicken and mouse skeletal muscles. Hayakawa, K., Minami, N., Ono, S., Ogasawara, Y., Totsuka, T., Abe, H., Tanaka, T., Obinata, T. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. WASp verprolin homology, cofilin homology, and acidic region domain-mediated actin polymerization is required for T cell development. Zhang, J., Shi, F., Badour, K., Deng, Y., McGavin, M.K., Siminovitch, K.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase. Arber, S., Barbayannis, F.A., Hanser, H., Schneider, C., Stanyon, C.A., Bernard, O., Caroni, P. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Putting a new twist on actin: ADF/cofilins modulate actin dynamics. Bamburg, J.R., McGough, A., Ono, S. Trends Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Abnormal spine morphology and enhanced LTP in LIMK-1 knockout mice. Meng, Y., Zhang, Y., Tregoubov, V., Janus, C., Cruz, L., Jackson, M., Lu, W.Y., MacDonald, J.F., Wang, J.Y., Falls, D.L., Jia, Z. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and its role in the disease. Nonoyama, S., Ochs, H.D. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates neurite outgrowth from cerebral cortical neurons via Rho kinase signaling. Jin, K., Mao, X.O., Greenberg, D.A. J. Neurobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Actin-depolymerizing factor and cofilin-1 play overlapping roles in promoting rapid F-actin depolymerization in mammalian nonmuscle cells. Hotulainen, P., Paunola, E., Vartiainen, M.K., Lappalainen, P. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is essential for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration. Gurniak, C.B., Perlas, E., Witke, W. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics. Vartiainen, M.K., Mustonen, T., Mattila, P.K., Ojala, P.J., Thesleff, I., Partanen, J., Lappalainen, P. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) promotes cofilin-induced actin dynamics in mammalian nonmuscle cells. Bertling, E., Hotulainen, P., Mattila, P.K., Matilainen, T., Salminen, M., Lappalainen, P. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Cross-reactivity of antibodies to actin- depolymerizing factor/cofilin family proteins and identification of the major epitope recognized by a mammalian actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin antibody. Shaw, A.E., Minamide, L.S., Bill, C.L., Funk, J.D., Maiti, S., Bamburg, J.R. Electrophoresis (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of a novel cofilin isoform that is predominantly expressed in mammalian skeletal muscle. Ono, S., Minami, N., Abe, H., Obinata, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Stimulus-dependent disorganization of actin filaments induced by overexpression of cofilin in C2 myoblasts. Ono, S., Abe, H., Obinata, T. Cell Struct. Funct. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Low molecular-weight G-actin binding proteins involved in the regulation of actin assembly during myofibrillogenesis. Obinata, T., Nagaoka-Yasuda, R., Ono, S., Kusano, K., Mohri, K., Ohtaka, Y., Yamashiro, S., Okada, K., Abe, H. Cell Struct. Funct. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Cofilin is a component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods induced in cultured cells. Nishida, E., Iida, K., Yonezawa, N., Koyasu, S., Yahara, I., Sakai, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Transducible heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) phosphopeptide alters cytoskeletal dynamics. Dreiza, C.M., Brophy, C.M., Komalavilas, P., Furnish, E.J., Joshi, L., Pallero, M.A., Murphy-Ullrich, J.E., von Rechenberg, M., Ho, Y.S., Richardson, B., Xu, N., Zhen, Y., Peltier, J.M., Panitch, A. FASEB J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell-type-specific expression of a TESK1 promoter-linked lacZ gene in transgenic mice. Toshima, J., Toshima, J.Y., Suzuki, M., Noda, T., Mizuno, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization by NRK/NESK, a member of the germinal center kinase family. Nakano, K., Kanai-Azuma, M., Kanai, Y., Moriyama, K., Yazaki, K., Hayashi, Y., Kitamura, N. Exp. Cell Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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