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Gene Review

FAH1  -  ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: CYP84A1, CYTOCHROME P450 84A1, F23E13.110, F23E13_110, FERULATE-5-HYDROXYLASE
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Disease relevance of FAH1

  • In fah1-2 transgenics in which the F5H gene was overexpressed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a guaiacyl-rich, syringyl/guaiacyl lignin similar to the wild type was produced [1].

High impact information on FAH1


Biological context of FAH1

  • In both FAH1 and F3H, nucleotide variation was structured into two major highly differentiated haplotypes [5].
  • Nucleotide sequence variation at two genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, the FAH1 and F3H genes, in Arabidopsis thaliana [5].
  • F5H shows 34% amino acid sequence identity with the avocado ripening-induced P450 CYP71A1 and 32% identity with the flavonoid-3',5'-hydroxylases of Petunia hybrida [4].
  • Efforts to identify constructs capable of complementing the sinapate ester-deficient phenotype of fah1 mutants demonstrated that F5H expression in leaves is dependent on sequences 3' of the F5H coding region [6].
  • We have isolated three F5H-like genes (BNF5H1-3) from a cultivated Brassica napus, whose amphidiploid progenitor is considered to have arisen from a fusion of the diploids Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea [7].

Associations of FAH1 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, the positive regulatory function of the downstream region is not required for F5H transcript or sinapoylcholine accumulation in embryos [6].
  • Despite its ability to accumulate UV-absorptive flavonoid compounds, the ferulic acid hydroxylase mutant fah1 exhibits more physiological injury (growth inhibition and foliar lesions) than either wild type or tt5 [8].
  • F5H from Arabidopsis and a similar enzyme from sweetgum (Liquidamber styraciflua) has recently been shown to have coniferaldehyde hydroxylase activity instead of F5H activity [7].
  • Ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase (F5H), a P450 that catalyzes 5-hydroxylation, has also been studied, but the presumptive 3-hydroxylase converting p-coumarate to caffeate has been elusive [9].
  • Yields of thioglycolic acid and Klason lignin in C4H-F5H lines were lower than in the wild-type, suggesting that F5H over-expression leads to a reduced deposition or an altered extractability of lignin in the transgenic plants [10].

Other interactions of FAH1


  1. NMR characterization of lignins in Arabidopsis altered in the activity of ferulate 5-hydroxylase. Marita, J.M., Ralph, J., Hatfield, R.D., Chapple, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Accumulation of soluble and wall-bound indolic metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves infected with virulent or avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strains. Hagemeier, J., Schneider, B., Oldham, N.J., Hahlbrock, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. New routes for lignin biosynthesis defined by biochemical characterization of recombinant ferulate 5-hydroxylase, a multifunctional cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase. Humphreys, J.M., Hemm, M.R., Chapple, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Ferulate-5-hydroxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana defines a new family of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. Meyer, K., Cusumano, J.C., Somerville, C., Chapple, C.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Nucleotide sequence variation at two genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, the FAH1 and F3H genes, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Aguadé, M. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of ferulate-5-hydroxylase expression in Arabidopsis in the context of sinapate ester biosynthesis. Ruegger, M., Meyer, K., Cusumano, J.C., Chapple, C. Plant Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a CYP84 family of cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase genes in Brassica napus and perturbation of their expression for engineering sinapine reduction in the seeds. Nair, R.B., Joy, R.W., Kurylo, E., Shi, X., Schnaider, J., Datla, R.S., Keller, W.A., Selvaraj, G. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Arabidopsis mutants lacking phenolic sunscreens exhibit enhanced ultraviolet-B injury and oxidative damage. Landry, L.G., Chapple, C.C., Last, R.L. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Arabidopsis CYP98A3 mediating aromatic 3-hydroxylation. Developmental regulation of the gene, and expression in yeast. Nair, R.B., Xia, Q., Kartha, C.J., Kurylo, E., Hirji, R.N., Datla, R., Selvaraj, G. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Modified lignin in tobacco and poplar plants over-expressing the Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase. Franke, R., McMichael, C.M., Meyer, K., Shirley, A.M., Cusumano, J.C., Chapple, C. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Highly structured nucleotide variation within and among Arabidopsis lyrata populations at the FAH1 and DFR gene regions. Balañá-Alcaide, D., Ramos-Onsins, S.E., Boone, Q., Aguadé, M. Mol. Ecol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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