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Gene Review

P5CR  -  Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of P5CR

  • The steady-state level of transcripts coding for the pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase of Arabidopsis (At-P5R) increased under salt and heat stress, mainly because of an enhanced mRNA stability [1].
  • Flock house virus (FHV), a single-stranded RNA insect virus, has previously been reported to cross the kingdom barrier and replicate in barley protoplasts and in inoculated leaves of several plant species [Selling, B. H., Allison, R. F. & Kaesberg, P. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 434-438] [2].
  • The AtP5CR gene was not induced to a significant extent by dehydration or high-salt stress [3].

High impact information on P5CR

  • Protein-DNA interaction at an inverted repeat of the sequence 5'-GTGG-3' (G-box) has been associated with the transcription of several plant genes [Giuliano, G., et al. (1988). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 7089-7093; Ferl, R.J., and Laughner, B.H. (1989). Plant Mol. Biol. 12, 357-366; Schulze-Lefert, P., et al. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 651-656] [4].
  • Based on a protein database search, this protein was recently predicted to be a mannitol dehydrogenase [Williamson, J. D., Stoop, J. M. H., Massel, M. O., Conkling, M. A. & Pharr, D. M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 7148-7152] [5].
  • Sodium vanadate is an effective agent for the enrichment of yeast mutants with defects in glycosylation steps that occur in the Golgi complex (Ballou, L., Hitzeman, R. A., Lewis, M. S., and Ballou, C. E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 88, 3209-3212) [6].
  • We have previously reported that the product of the wheat TaUBC7 gene recognizes ubiquitin as a substrate for ubiquitination in vitro, catalyzing the condensation of free ubiquitin into multiubiquitin chains linked via lysine 48 (van Nocker, S., and vierstra, R. D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 88, 10297-10301) [7].
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is encoded by a multigene family (Harper, J. F., Surowy, T. K., and Sussman, M. R. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 86, 1234-1238) [8].

Biological context of P5CR


Associations of P5CR with chemical compounds

  • The biochemical basis of heat/drought tolerance was investigated by comparing the response of antisense and sense transgenic soybean plants (containing the L-delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene) with non-transgenic wild-type plants [14].
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana gene that encodes pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (At-P5R), the last enzyme in proline biosynthesis in A. thaliana, is developmentally regulated and is highly expressed in cells that divide rapidly or undergo changes in osmotic potential [15].
  • It has recently been reported that the addition of Tre6P to isolated chloroplasts leads to redox activation of AGPase (ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase) [Kolbe, Tiessen, Schluepmann, Paul, Ulrich and Geigenberger (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11118-11123] [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of P5CR


  1. The 5' untranslated region of the At-P5R gene is involved in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Hua, X.J., Van de Cotte, B., Van Montagu, M., Verbruggen, N. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Systemic spread of an RNA insect virus in plants expressing plant viral movement protein genes. Dasgupta, R., Garcia, B.H., Goodman, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Correlation between the induction of a gene for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and the accumulation of proline in Arabidopsis thaliana under osmotic stress. Yoshiba, Y., Kiyosue, T., Katagiri, T., Ueda, H., Mizoguchi, T., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Wada, K., Harada, Y., Shinozaki, K. Plant J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the Arabidopsis Adh G-box binding factor. DeLisle, A.J., Ferl, R.J. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Arabidopsis thaliana defense-related protein ELI3 is an aromatic alcohol:NADP(+) oxidoreductase. Somssich, I.E., Wernert, P., Kiedrowski, S., Hahlbrock, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. The yeast VRG4 gene is required for normal Golgi functions and defines a new family of related genes. Poster, J.B., Dean, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. The Arabidopsis thaliana UBC7/13/14 genes encode a family of multiubiquitin chain-forming E2 enzymes. van Nocker, S., Walker, J.M., Vierstra, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase multigene family. Genomic sequence and expression of a third isoform. Harper, J.F., Manney, L., DeWitt, N.D., Yoo, M.H., Sussman, M.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Osmoregulation of a pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Verbruggen, N., Villarroel, R., Van Montagu, M. Plant Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Developmental regulation of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene expression in Arabidopsis. Hua, X.J., van de Cotte, B., Van Montagu, M., Verbruggen, N. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Male meiotic spindle lengths in normal and mutant arabidopsis cells. Yang, M., Ma, H. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Potential retroviruses in plants: Tat1 is related to a group of Arabidopsis thaliana Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons that encode envelope-like proteins. Wright, D.A., Voytas, D.F. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of new transformation-competent artificial chromosome vectors and rice genomic libraries for efficient gene cloning. Liu, Y.G., Liu, H., Chen, L., Qiu, W., Zhang, Q., Wu, H., Yang, C., Su, J., Wang, Z., Tian, D., Mei, M. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Photosynthetic response of transgenic soybean plants, containing an Arabidopsis P5CR gene, during heat and drought stress. De Ronde, J.A., Cress, W.A., Krüger, G.H., Strasser, R.J., Van Staden, J. J. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A 69 bp fragment in the pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana activates minimal CaMV 35S promoter in a tissue-specific manner. Hua, X., van de Cotte, B., Van Montagu, M., Verbruggen, N. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lunn, J.E., Feil, R., Hendriks, J.H., Gibon, Y., Morcuende, R., Osuna, D., Scheible, W.R., Carillo, P., Hajirezaei, M.R., Stitt, M. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
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