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Gene Review

SERK1  -  somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATSERK1, F14O23.21, F14O23_21, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1, somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1
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Disease relevance of SERK1


High impact information on SERK1

  • These results suggest that KAPP is an integral part of the AtSERK1 endocytosis mechanism [3].
  • AtSERK1(T463A)-CFP and AtSERK1(3T-->A)-CFP proteins were partially sequestered intracellularly in the absence of KAPP-YFP protein, suggesting an active role for KAPP dephosphorylation of threonine residues in the AtSERK1 A-loop in receptor internalization [3].
  • Using mutant AtSERK1 proteins in which Thr 462, Thr 463, and Thr 468 in the A-loop of the AtSERK1 kinase domain were replaced by alanines, we show that phosphorylation status of the receptor is involved in interaction with KAPP [3].
  • The AtSERK1 protein is a plasma membrane-located LRR receptor-like serine threonine kinase that is transiently expressed during plant embryogenesis [3].
  • The SERK1 mutant allele serk1-1 enhances the phenotype of the weak BRI1 allele bri1-119 [4].

Biological context of SERK1

  • Arabidopsis thaliana SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 (SERK1) is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence and in male sporogenesis [4].
  • Finally, the MADS box transcription factor AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and an uncharacterized zinc finger protein, a member of the CONSTANS family, were identified as part of the SERK1 complex [4].
  • Fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to detect F??rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CrFP/YFP-tagged CDC48A and SERK1 [5].
  • In young buds, double mutant anthers developed normally, but serk1 serk2 microsporangia produced more sporogenous cells that were unable to develop beyond meiosis [6].
  • On the basis of this model, threonine residues in the AtSERK1 activation loop of catalytic subdomain VIII are potential targets for phosphorylation [1].

Anatomical context of SERK1


Associations of SERK1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of SERK1


Enzymatic interactions of SERK1


Other interactions of SERK1

  • Both SERK1 and SERK2 are expressed widely in locules until stage 6 anthers and are more concentrated in the tapetal cell layer later [6].
  • Collectively, these results suggest that apart from SERK3, SERK1 is also involved in the brassinolide signaling pathway [4].
  • Further confocal microscopic and molecular analyses showed that serk1 serk2 double mutant anthers lack development of the tapetal cell layer, which accounts for the microspore abortion and male sterility [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SERK1

  • We have cloned a SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK) gene from Medicago truncatula (MtSERK1) and examined its expression in culture using real time PCR [9].


  1. Role of threonines in the Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1 activation loop in phosphorylation. Shah, K., Vervoort, J., de Vries, S.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 1 gene is expressed in developing ovules and embryos and enhances embryogenic competence in culture. Hecht, V., Vielle-Calzada, J.P., Hartog, M.V., Schmidt, E.D., Boutilier, K., Grossniklaus, U., de Vries, S.C. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The Arabidopsis kinase-associated protein phosphatase controls internalization of the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1. Shah, K., Russinova, E., Gadella, T.W., Willemse, J., De Vries, S.C. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 protein complex includes BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1. Karlova, R., Boeren, S., Russinova, E., Aker, J., Vervoort, J., de Vries, S. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana AAA protein CDC48A interacts in vivo with the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 receptor at the plasma membrane. Aker, J., Borst, J.W., Karlova, R., de Vries, S. J. Struct. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASES1 and 2 are essential for tapetum development and microspore maturation. Colcombet, J., Boisson-Dernier, A., Ros-Palau, R., Vera, C.E., Schroeder, J.I. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The Arabidopsis thaliana SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES1 and 2 control male sporogenesis. Albrecht, C., Russinova, E., Hecht, V., Baaijens, E., de Vries, S. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Subcellular localization and oligomerization of the Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1 protein. Shah, K., Gadella, T.W., van Erp, H., Hecht, V., de Vries, S.C. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Auxin up-regulates MtSERK1 expression in both Medicago truncatula root-forming and embryogenic cultures. Nolan, K.E., Irwanto, R.R., Rose, R.J. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The Arabidopsis SERK1 protein interacts with the AAA-ATPase AtCDC48, the 14-3-3 protein GF14lambda and the PP2C phosphatase KAPP. Rienties, I.M., Vink, J., Borst, J.W., Russinova, E., de Vries, S.C. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
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