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Gene Review

BAK1  -  Leu-rich receptor Serine/threonine protein...

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATBAK1, ATSERK3, BRI1-associated receptor kinase, ELG, ELONGATED, ...
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Disease relevance of BAK1

  • The two-domain Arabidopsis thaliana Str1 protein (At1g79230) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a mature protein, as a variant without the elongated linker sequence, and as AtStr1C332S and AtStr1C339V [1].

High impact information on BAK1

  • BAK1, an Arabidopsis LRR receptor-like protein kinase, interacts with BRI1 and modulates brassinosteroid signaling [2].
  • BAK1 and BRI1 share similar gene expression and subcellular localization patterns and physically associate with each other in plants [3].
  • We propose that BAK1 and BRI1 function together to mediate plant steroid signaling [3].
  • Overexpression of BAK1 results in elongated organ phenotypes, while a null allele of BAK1 displays a semidwarfed phenotype and has reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids (BRs) [2].
  • Mutations in GTE6 disrupt the formation of elliptical leaf laminae in mature leaves, whereas overexpression of GTE6 resulted in elongated juvenile leaves [4].

Biological context of BAK1


Anatomical context of BAK1


Associations of BAK1 with chemical compounds

  • BAK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase, and BRI1 and BAK1 interact in vitro and in vivo [2].
  • In the absence of auxin, cells elongated with concomitant increase in their ploidy level, but both were strongly inhibited by E2FB [11].
  • Among its substrates is the basic domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), one of the key regulators of photomorphogenesis under all light qualities, including UV-B responses required for tolerance to this environmental threat [12].
  • We also tested the hypothesis that branches of amylopectin might serve as the primers for granule-bound starch synthase I. In this model, elongated branches of amylopectin are subsequently cleaved to form amylose [13].
  • The activation tagging of YUCCA5 conferred increased levels of free indole acetic acid, increased auxin response, and mild phenotypic characteristics of auxin overproducers, such as elongated hypocotyls, epinastic cotyledons, and narrow leaves [14].

Regulatory relationships of BAK1

  • It is believed that BRI1 becomes activated through heterodimerization with BAK1, a similar LRR receptor kinase, in response to BR signal [15].

Other interactions of BAK1

  • Collectively, these results suggest that apart from SERK3, SERK1 is also involved in the brassinolide signaling pathway [16].
  • Overexpression of the TTL gene results in a phenotype that was observed in weak bri1 mutants and null bak1 mutants [15].
  • The sgr2 mutants also had misshapen seed and seedlings, whereas the stem of the zig/sgr4 mutants elongated in a zigzag fashion [17].
  • Here, we show that arc11, one of 12 recessive accumulation and replication of chloroplasts (arc) mutants in Arabidopsis, contains highly elongated and multiple-arrayed chloroplasts in developing green tissues [18].
  • Like phyB mutants, elf3 mutants have elongated hypocotyls and petioles, flower early, and have defects in the red light response [19].
  • We report that BAK1-LIKE 1 (BKK1) functions redundantly with BAK1 in regulating BR signaling [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BAK1

  • The abaxial surface of ant petals contains features such as stomata and elongated, interdigitated cells that are not present on wild-type petals [21].
  • In physiological buffer, the circular dichroism spectra of the full-length dehydrins reveal overall disordered structures with a variable content of poly-Pro helices, a type of elongated secondary structure relying on bridging water molecules [22].
  • Two of the triple-mutant lines, designated 55H and 70F, had elongated hypocotyls and fruit trusses, and pale immature fruits [23].


  1. Conformational studies on Arabidopsis sulfurtransferase AtStr1 with spectroscopic methods. Bartels, A., Forlani, F., Pagani, S., Papenbrock, J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. BAK1, an Arabidopsis LRR receptor-like protein kinase, interacts with BRI1 and modulates brassinosteroid signaling. Li, J., Wen, J., Lease, K.A., Doke, J.T., Tax, F.E., Walker, J.C. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. BRI1/BAK1, a receptor kinase pair mediating brassinosteroid signaling. Nam, K.H., Li, J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The bromodomain protein GTE6 controls leaf development in Arabidopsis by histone acetylation at ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1. Chua, Y.L., Channelière, S., Mott, E., Gray, J.C. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Heterodimerization and endocytosis of Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptors BRI1 and AtSERK3 (BAK1). Russinova, E., Borst, J.W., Kwaaitaal, M., Caño-Delgado, A., Yin, Y., Chory, J., de Vries, S.C. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and functional analysis of in vivo phosphorylation sites of the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 receptor kinase. Wang, X., Goshe, M.B., Soderblom, E.J., Phinney, B.S., Kuchar, J.A., Li, J., Asami, T., Yoshida, S., Huber, S.C., Clouse, S.D. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. A brassinosteroid-hypersensitive mutant of BAK1 indicates that a convergence of photomorphogenic and hormonal signaling modulates phototropism. Whippo, C.W., Hangarter, R.P. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Towards the mechanism of cellulose synthesis. Williamson, R.E., Burn, J.E., Hocart, C.H. Trends Plant Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Down-regulation of the PSI-F subunit of photosystem I (PSI) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The PSI-F subunit is essential for photoautotrophic growth and contributes to antenna function. Haldrup, A., Simpson, D.J., Scheller, H.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Five Arabidopsis peroxin 11 homologs individually promote peroxisome elongation, duplication or aggregation. Lingard, M.J., Trelease, R.N. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of the Arabidopsis E2FB transcription factor in regulating auxin-dependent cell division. Magyar, Z., De Veylder, L., Atanassova, A., Bakó, L., Inzé, D., Bögre, L. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 is required for the UV-B response in Arabidopsis. Oravecz, A., Baumann, A., Máté, Z., Brzezinska, A., Molinier, J., Oakeley, E.J., Adám, E., Schäfer, E., Nagy, F., Ulm, R. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The priming of amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis leaves. Zeeman, S.C., Smith, S.M., Smith, A.M. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Interaction of auxin and ERECTA in elaborating Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture revealed by the activation tagging of a new member of the YUCCA family putative flavin monooxygenases. Woodward, C., Bemis, S.M., Hill, E.J., Sawa, S., Koshiba, T., Torii, K.U. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1. Nam, K.H., Li, J. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. The Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1 protein complex includes BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1. Karlova, R., Boeren, S., Russinova, E., Aker, J., Vervoort, J., de Vries, S. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. SGR2, a phospholipase-like protein, and ZIG/SGR4, a SNARE, are involved in the shoot gravitropism of Arabidopsis. Kato, T., Morita, M.T., Fukaki, H., Yamauchi, Y., Uehara, M., Niihama, M., Tasaka, M. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Chloroplast division site placement requires dimerization of the ARC11/AtMinD1 protein in Arabidopsis. Fujiwara, M.T., Nakamura, A., Itoh, R., Shimada, Y., Yoshida, S., Møller, S.G. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Independent action of ELF3 and phyB to control hypocotyl elongation and flowering time. Reed, J.W., Nagpal, P., Bastow, R.M., Solomon, K.S., Dowson-Day, M.J., Elumalai, R.P., Millar, A.J. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. BAK1 and BKK1 regulate brassinosteroid-dependent growth and brassinosteroid-independent cell-death pathways. He, K., Gou, X., Yuan, T., Lin, H., Asami, T., Yoshida, S., Russell, S.D., Li, J. Curr. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. AINTEGUMENTA promotes petal identity and acts as a negative regulator of AGAMOUS. Krizek, B.A., Prost, V., Macias, A. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Structural investigation of disordered stress proteins. Comparison of full-length dehydrins with isolated peptides of their conserved segments. Mouillon, J.M., Gustafsson, P., Harryson, P. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of the gene encoding the apoprotein of phytochrome B2 in tomato, and identification of molecular lesions in two mutant alleles. Kerckhoffs, L.H., Kelmenson, P.M., Schreuder, M.E., Kendrick, C.I., Kendrick, R.E., Hanhart, C.J., Koornneef, M., Pratt, L.H., Cordonnier-Pratt, M.M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
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