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Gene Review

PDC1  -  indolepyruvate decarboxylase 1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: L2104, Pyruvate decarboxylase isozyme 1, YLR044C
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Disease relevance of PDC1

  • In this recombinant, the coding region of pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) was completely deleted, and two copies of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain NBRC3426 were introduced into the genome [1].
  • The yeast PDC1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, leading to an active PDC [2].

High impact information on PDC1

  • Using potassium permanganate, which preferentially modifies single-stranded DNA, we show that a temperature-sensitive rad25(ts) mutant severely reduces the normally extensive promoter melting observed in vivo on the highly expressed genes TDH2 and PDC1 and on the induced heat shock gene HSP82 [3].
  • This decarboxylation can be effected by any of Pdc1p, Pdc5p, Pdc6p, or Ydr380wp; Ydl080cp has no role in the catabolism of either amino acid [4].
  • Mutant studies showed that one of the decarboxylases encoded by PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, YDL080c, or YDR380w must be present to allow yeast to utilize alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate [5].
  • For this purpose we studied the function of different promoter fragments of PDC1, encoding the major pyruvate decarboxylase enzyme in wild-type cells, in the basal CYC1 promoter context [6].
  • ERA, a novel cis-acting element required for autoregulation and ethanol repression of PDC1 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of PDC1


Biological context of PDC1


Anatomical context of PDC1


Associations of PDC1 with chemical compounds

  • Deletion of either of these genes has little or no effect on the specific pyruvate decarboxylase activity, but enzyme activity is undetectable in mutants lacking both PDC1 and PDC5 (S. Hohmann and H. Cederberg, Eur. J. Biochem. 188:615-621, 1990) [12].
  • Spontaneous mutants, derived from such a pdc1 pdc5 strain, were isolated which could again ferment glucose [13].
  • Hence, under thiamine limitation both PDC1 and PDC5 are expressed [14].
  • Experiments with cell extracts from S. cerevisiae mutants expressing a single PDC gene demonstrated that both PDC1- and PDC5-encoded isoenzymes can decarboxylate branched-chain 2-oxo acids [15].
  • Fructose also induced PDC1 transcription, indicating that intracellular sugars could act as trigger for PDC1 induction or, alternatively, that two inductors are present [16].

Physical interactions of PDC1

  • Gel retardation and oligonucleotide competition experiments suggest that the DNA binding factor TUF interacts with the RPG box in the upstream region of PDC1 [17].

Regulatory relationships of PDC1

  • The second copy of PDC6 was expressed under the control of the PDC1 promoter, which was still present in the pdc1 strain [13].
  • Deletion of the more strongly expressed PDC1 gene stimulates the promoter activity of both PDC1 and PDC5, a phenomenon called Pdc autoregulation [18].

Other interactions of PDC1

  • Two structural genes, PDC1 and PDC5 have been characterized [12].
  • PDC6, a weakly expressed pyruvate decarboxylase gene from yeast, is activated when fused spontaneously under the control of the PDC1 promoter [13].
  • The DNA binding protein Pdc2 was initially identified as a regulator of the genes PDC1 and PDC5, which encode isoforms of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) [19].
  • (i) The glucose-inducible fermentation genes PDC1 and ADH1 share the sequence ATACCTTCSTT [20].
  • Transcriptional induction of the PDC1 gene (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) was observed after glucose or galactose pulses were applied to the pgi1 strain, demonstrating that metabolism of these sugars beyond glucose 6-phosphate is dispensable for PDC1 induction [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PDC1

  • Northern blot analysis revealed that a sequence in the yeast genome homologous to PDC1 and formerly designated as a possible pseudogene is expressed and may code for a different but closely related pyruvate decarboxylase [21].


  1. D-lactic acid production by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ishida, N., Suzuki, T., Tokuhiro, K., Nagamori, E., Onishi, T., Saitoh, S., Kitamoto, K., Takahashi, H. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. pdc1(0) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae give evidence for an additional structural PDC gene: cloning of PDC5, a gene homologous to PDC1. Seeboth, P.G., Bohnsack, K., Hollenberg, C.P. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcription factor TFIIH is required for promoter melting in vivo. Guzmán, E., Lis, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dickinson, J.R., Salgado, L.E., Hewlins, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. An investigation of the metabolism of isoleucine to active Amyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dickinson, J.R., Harrison, S.J., Dickinson, J.A., Hewlins, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. ERA, a novel cis-acting element required for autoregulation and ethanol repression of PDC1 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Liesen, T., Hollenberg, C.P., Heinisch, J.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of an upstream activation site in the pyruvate decarboxylase structural gene (PDC1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Butler, G., McConnell, D.J. Curr. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Autoregulation may control the expression of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase structural genes PDC1 and PDC5. Hohmann, S., Cederberg, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Thioredoxin genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: map positions of TRX1 and TRX2. Muller, E.G. Yeast (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Pyruvate decarboxylase encoded by the PDC1 gene contributes, at least partially, to the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoisocaproate for isoamyl alcohol formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yoshimoto, H., Fukushige, T., Yonezawa, T., Sakai, Y., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., Sone, H., Tamai, Y. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxygen and carbon source-regulated expression of PDC and ADH genes in the respiratory yeast Pichia anomala. Fredlund, E., Beerlage, C., Melin, P., Schn??rer, J., Passoth, V. Yeast (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of PDC6, a third structural gene for pyruvate decarboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hohmann, S. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. PDC6, a weakly expressed pyruvate decarboxylase gene from yeast, is activated when fused spontaneously under the control of the PDC1 promoter. Hohmann, S. Curr. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Thiamine repression and pyruvate decarboxylase autoregulation independently control the expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDC5 gene. Muller, E.H., Richards, E.J., Norbeck, J., Byrne, K.L., Karlsson, K.A., Pretorius, G.H., Meacock, P.A., Blomberg, A., Hohmann, S. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids but is not essential for fusel alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ter Schure, E.G., Flikweert, M.T., van Dijken, J.P., Pronk, J.T., Verrips, C.T. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase reaction is essential for normal glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sierkstra, L.N., Silljé, H.H., Verbakel, J.M., Verrips, C.T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. TUF factor binds to the upstream region of the pyruvate decarboxylase structural gene (PDC1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Butler, G., Dawes, I.W., McConnell, D.J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Autoregulation of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase gene expression requires the enzyme but not its catalytic activity. Eberhardt, I., Cederberg, H., Li, H., König, S., Jordan, F., Hohmann, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Pdc2 coordinates expression of the THI regulon in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mojzita, D., Hohmann, S. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Transient mRNA responses in chemostat cultures as a method of defining putative regulatory elements: application to genes involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism. van den Berg, M.A., de Jong-Gubbels, P., Steensma, H.Y. Yeast (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. A deletion of the PDC1 gene for pyruvate decarboxylase of yeast causes a different phenotype than previously isolated point mutations. Schaaff, I., Green, J.B., Gozalbo, D., Hohmann, S. Curr. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
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