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Gene Review

PGI1  -  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: GPI, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, PGI, PHI, Phosphoglucose isomerase, ...
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Disease relevance of PGI1

  • One of the two previously characterized genes coding for the abundant polygalacturonases I and II (PGI and PGII) found in a commercial pectinase preparation was used as a probe to isolate five more genes by screening a genomic DNA library in phage lambda EMBL4 using conditions of moderate stringency [1].

High impact information on PGI1

  • We propose that diminished GPI-anchor protein production contributes to hyperactive Ras phenotypes [2].
  • Here, we demonstrate that Eri1 is a component of the GPI-GlcNAc transferase (GPI-GnT) complex in the ER, which catalyzes transfer of GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor phosphatidylinositol, the first step in the production of GPI-anchors for cell surface proteins [2].
  • Toxin binding to spheroplasts is mediated by Kre1p, a cell wall protein initially attached to the plasma membrane by its C-terminal GPI anchor [3].
  • Therefore, GPI-anchored proteins are sorted from other proteins, in particular other plasma membrane proteins, at an early stage of the secretory pathway [4].
  • However, the specific requirements for transport of GPI-anchored proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus in yeast could be explained if protein sorting occurs earlier in the pathway [4].

Biological context of PGI1


Anatomical context of PGI1

  • The sequence of FLO11 reveals a 4,104-bp open reading frame on chromosome IX whose predicted product is similar in overall structure to the class of yeast serine/threonine-rich GPI-anchored cell wall proteins [10].
  • We report here identification and characterization of a mutation in the GPI14 gene, the yeast homologue of the mammalian PIG-M that functions in the synthesis of the GPI moiety anchoring proteins to the plasma membrane [11].
  • We show that microsomes preloaded with yeast phosphoglucose isomerase catalyzed the detritiation of [2-(3)H]glucose-6-phosphate and that this reaction was inhibited by up to 90% by S3483, a compound known to inhibit glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis in intact but not in detergent-treated microsomes [12].
  • Beyond being an abundant membrane constituent in the organelles of the secretory pathway, IPCs are also used to constitute the lipid moiety of the majority of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) proteins, while a minority of GPI proteins contain PI (phosphatidylinositol) [13].
  • Furthermore, while the bacterial, yeast and mammalian preparations all exhibited isomerase activity, only mammalian PGI stimulated the motility of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts [14].

Associations of PGI1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PGI1

  • Transcriptional induction of the PDC1 gene (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) was observed after glucose or galactose pulses were applied to the pgi1 strain, demonstrating that metabolism of these sugars beyond glucose 6-phosphate is dispensable for PDC1 induction [9].
  • The occurrence of PDC1 induction in the pgi1 strain while GAL10/HXKI repression is absent, demonstrates that the initial signals for catabolite induction and catabolite repression are different [9].
  • One class of mutants lacked pyruvate kinase (pyk), another class had all the enzymes of glycolysis, and one mutant lacked phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi, Maitra 1971) [17].
  • It has been found that a 2.6 kb LEU2 DNA fragment in a multicopy plasmid was replaced by a 3.1 kb PGI1 chromosomal DNA fragment, when both fragments were flanked by homologous DNA regions [18].
  • Ymr116c was PKA-independent, while Pgi1p, Sam1p, Gdh1p and Vma1p were fully PKA-dependent [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGI1


  1. The polygalacturonases of Aspergillus niger are encoded by a family of diverged genes. Bussink, H.J., Buxton, F.P., Fraaye, B.A., de Graaff, L.H., Visser, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Yeast Ras regulates the complex that catalyzes the first step in GPI-anchor biosynthesis at the ER. Sobering, A.K., Watanabe, R., Romeo, M.J., Yan, B.C., Specht, C.A., Orlean, P., Riezman, H., Levin, D.E. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Kre1p, the plasma membrane receptor for the yeast K1 viral toxin. Breinig, F., Tipper, D.J., Schmitt, M.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Protein sorting upon exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Muñiz, M., Morsomme, P., Riezman, H. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of the first fungal NADP-GAPDH from Kluyveromyces lactis. Verho, R., Richard, P., Jonson, P.H., Sundqvist, L., Londesborough, J., Penttilä, M. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Deletion of the phosphoglucose isomerase structural gene makes growth and sporulation glucose dependent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aguilera, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. RIM2, MSI1 and PGI1 are located within an 8 kb segment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome II, which also contains the putative ribosomal gene L21 and a new putative essential gene with a leucine zipper motif. Démolis, N., Mallet, L., Bussereau, F., Jacquet, M. Yeast (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Open reading frames in the antisense strands of genes coding for glycolytic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Boles, E., Zimmermann, F.K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase reaction is essential for normal glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sierkstra, L.N., Silljé, H.H., Verbakel, J.M., Verrips, C.T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. FLO11, a yeast gene related to the STA genes, encodes a novel cell surface flocculin. Lo, W.S., Dranginis, A.M. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of GPI14/YJR013w mutation that induces the cell wall integrity signalling pathway and results in increased protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Davydenko, S.G., Feng, D., Jäntti, J., Keränen, S. Yeast (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Novel arguments in favor of the substrate-transport model of glucose-6-phosphatase. Gerin, I., Noël, G., Van Schaftingen, E. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple functions of inositolphosphorylceramides in the formation and intracellular transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast. Bosson, R., Conzelmann, A. Biochem. Soc. Symp. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Species specificity of the cytokine function of phosphoglucose isomerase. Amraei, M., Nabi, I.R. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Depression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invasive growth on non-glucose carbon sources requires the Snf1 kinase. Palecek, S.P., Parikh, A.S., Huh, J.H., Kron, S.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Xylulose fermentation by mutant and wild-type strains of Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eliasson, A., Boles, E., Johansson, B., Osterberg, M., Thevelein, J.M., Spencer-Martins, I., Juhnke, H., Hahn-Hägerdal, B. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Glycolysis mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clifton, D., Weinstock, S.B., Fraenkel, D.G. Genetics (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Mitotic gene conversion of large DNA heterologies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aguilera, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. The level of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activity strongly affects osmotolerance and osmo-instigated gene expression changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Norbeck, J., Blomberg, A. Yeast (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Biochemical and genetic studies on the function of, and relationship between, the PGI1- and CDC30-encoded phosphoglucose isomerases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dickinson, J.R. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. The subunit structure of phosphoglucose isomerase from bakers' yeast. Lowe, S.L., Reithel, F.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
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