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Gene Review

TDH2  -  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: GAPDH 2, GPD2, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2, J1433, YJR009C
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High impact information on TDH2

  • Mutants deleted for both GPD1 and GPD2 do not produce detectable glycerol, are highly osmosensitive and fail to grow under anoxic conditions [1].
  • In addition, GPD2 is induced under aerobic conditions by the addition of bisulfite which causes NADH accumulation by inhibiting the final, reductive step in ethanol fermentation and this induction is reversed by addition of acetaldehyde [1].
  • Our studies reveal that this process is tightly regulated, since, surprisingly, despite a high degree of sequence homology (98% similarity and 96% identity), the Tdh3 but not the Tdh2 isoenzyme was S-thiolated [2].
  • Using potassium permanganate, which preferentially modifies single-stranded DNA, we show that a temperature-sensitive rad25(ts) mutant severely reduces the normally extensive promoter melting observed in vivo on the highly expressed genes TDH2 and PDC1 and on the induced heat shock gene HSP82 [3].
  • The growth inhibition of respiratory incompetent cox18Delta cells lacking GPD2 is reversed by the addition of acetoin, an alternative sink for NADH oxidation [4].

Biological context of TDH2


Anatomical context of TDH2


Associations of TDH2 with chemical compounds

  • A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the GPD2 gene, encoding one of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases, grows slowly under anaerobic conditions, due to reductive stress caused by the accumulation of cytoplasmic NADH [10].
  • Mutant strains lacking only a functional TDH2 allele or a TDH3 allele grow at 50 and 75% of the rate observed for wild type cells, respectively, when glucose is used as carbon source [6].
  • As a consequence, ethanol formation in the gpd2 delta mutant was elevated by 13% [11].

Other interactions of TDH2

  • Further evidence that protein S-thiolation is tightly regulated in response to oxidative stress is provided by the finding that the Tdh3 GAPDH isoenzyme, and not the Tdh2 isoenzyme, is S-thiolated following exposure to H(2)O(2) in vivo, whereas both GAPDH isoenzymes are S-thiolated when H(2)O(2) is added to cell-free extracts [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TDH2

  • The anaerobic performance of gpd1 delta and gpd2 delta mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterized and compared to that of a wild-type strain under well-controlled conditions by using a high-performance bioreactor [11].


  1. The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation. Ansell, R., Granath, K., Hohmann, S., Thevelein, J.M., Adler, L. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential protein S-thiolation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes influences sensitivity to oxidative stress. Grant, C.M., Quinn, K.A., Dawes, I.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcription factor TFIIH is required for promoter melting in vivo. Guzmán, E., Lis, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Distinct intracellular localization of Gpd1p and Gpd2p, the two yeast isoforms of NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, explains their different contributions to redox-driven glycerol production. Valadi, A., Granath, K., Gustafsson, L., Adler, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Rad25p, a DNA helicase subunit of yeast transcription factor TFIIH, is required for promoter escape in vivo. Ostapenko, D., Gileadi, O. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and characterization of yeast strains carrying mutations in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. McAlister, L., Holland, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Hydrogen peroxide-induced carbonylation of key metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the involvement of the oxidative stress response regulators Yap1 and Skn7. Costa, V.M., Amorim, M.A., Quintanilha, A., Moradas-Ferreira, P. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. TDH2 is linked to MET3 on chromosome X of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mountain, H.A., Korch, C. Yeast (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase polypeptides encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TDH1, TDH2 and TDH3 genes are also cell wall proteins. Delgado, M.L., O'Connor, J.E., Azorín, I., Renau-Piqueras, J., Gil, M.L., Gozalbo, D. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. NADH-reductive stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the expression of the minor isoform of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (TDH1). Valadi, H., Valadi, A., Ansell, R., Gustafsson, L., Adler, L., Norbeck, J., Blomberg, A. Curr. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Improved ethanol production by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Valadi, H., Larsson, C., Gustafsson, L. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of protein S-thiolation by glutaredoxin 5 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Shenton, D., Perrone, G., Quinn, K.A., Dawes, I.W., Grant, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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